ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی در ژنوتیپ‌های کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) با استفاده از صفات و شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی تحت شرایط خشکی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه بیوتکنولوژی و اصلاح‌نباتات، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

2 پژوهشکده ژﻧﺘﯿﮏ و زﯾﺴﺖ ﻓﻨﺎوری ﮐﺸﺎورزی ﻃﺒﺮﺳﺘﺎن، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

3 گروه علوم پایه، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

10.30495/iper.2022.688792

چکیده

کنجد به عنوان یکی از مهم­ترین گیاهان زراعی دانه روغنی از ظرفیت­های صنعتی، غذایی و دارویی بالایی برخوردار است. تنش خشکی به ویژه در مرحله جوانه­زنی و گیاهچه­ای تولید کنجد را با چالش رو برو می­کند. به منظور غربال ژنوتیپ­های کنجد برای تحمل به خشکی در مرحله جوانه­زنی آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل 4 سطح خشکی القا شده به وسیله پلی‌اتیلن‌گلیکول (غلظت­های 0، 20، 25 و 30 درصد) و 15 ژنوتیپ کنجد بودند. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس اثر ژنوتیپ، خشکی و بر هم­کنش آن­ها بر روی تمامی صفات جوانه­زنی مورد بررسی شامل درصد جوانه­زنی، سرعت جوانه­زنی، شاخص بنیه 1 و 2، طول ریشه­چه، طول ساقه­چه، وزن تر و خشک گیاهچه در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار بود. کاهش معنی­دار (در سطح 5 درصد) در تمامی سطوح تنش نسبت به شاهد در صفات مطالعه شده مشاهده گشت. صفات درصد جوانه­زنی، طول ریشه­چه و طول ساقه­چه (به ترتیب با 10، 17 و 18 درصد کاهش) حساسیت کمتری به تنش خشکی در سطح ضعیف (غلظت 20 درصد) نشان دادند، در حالی­که بیشترین تاثیر منفی برای صفات شاخص بنیه 2، وزن خشک گیاهچه و وزن تر گیاهچه (به ترتیب با 5/52، 3/47 و 4/34 درصد کاهش) بدست آمد. از سوی دیگر تحت خشکی شدید (غلظت 30 درصد) بیشترین کاهش در طول ساقه­چه، شاخص بنیه 1 و 2 (به ترتیب 98، 97 و 96 درصد) حاصل گشت. از شاخص­های تحمل به خشکی محاسبه شده برای هر یک از صفات در تجزیه به مولفه­های اصلی و رسم بای­پلات استفاده شد. بدین­ترتیب ژنوتیپ­ها بر اساس تحمل به 5 دسته تقسیم شدند. ژنوتیپ­های دشتسان 2 و داراب 1 به عنوان متحمل­ترین و ژنوتیپ­های قائم، یکتا، سودان و کرمان به عنوان حساس­ترین ژنوتیپ­ها انتخاب شدند. یافته­های این پژوهش می تواند در مطالعات و برنامه­های اصلاحی آینده کنجد برای تحمل خشکی مورد استفاده قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of drought tolerance in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes using germination traits and indices under drought conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Amin Baghery 1
  • Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar 1
  • Ali Dehestani 2
  • Pooyan Mehrabanjoubani 3
  • Hamid Najafi Zarini 1
1 Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
2 Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan (GABIT), Sari, Iran.
3 Department of Basic Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Sesame as one of the most important oilseed crops has high industrial, food, and medicinal potentials. Drought stress challenges sesame production, especially at the germination and seedling stages. To screen sesame genotypes for drought tolerance at the germination stage, a factorial experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The studied factors included 4 drought levels induced by polyethylene glycol (concentrations of 0%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) and 15 sesame genotypes. Based on the results of ANOVA, the effect of genotype, drought, and their interaction on all studied traits including germination rate, germination speed, vigor index 1 and 2, radicle length, plumule length, and seedling fresh and dry weight was significant (P<0.01). Significant reduction (P<0.05) was observed in all levels of stress compared to the control in the studied traits. Germination rate, radicle length, and plumule length (with 10%, 17%, and 18% reduction, respectively) showed less sensitivity to drought stress at weak level (20% concentration), while the most negative effect was obtained for vigor index 2, seedling dry weight and seedling fresh weight (with 52.5%, 47.3%, and 34.4% reduction, respectively). On the other hand, the highest decrease was observed in plumule length, vigor index 1 and 2 (98%, 97%, and 96%, respectively), under severe drought (30% concentration). The calculated drought tolerance indices of each trait were used for principal component analysis and biplot visualization. Thus, genotypes were divided into 5 categories based on tolerance. Dashtestan 2 and Darab 1 genotypes were selected as the most tolerant and Qaem, Yekta, Sudan, and Kerman genotypes were selected as the most sensitive genotypes. The findings of this study can be used in future studies and breeding programs of sesame for drought tolerance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biplot
  • Drought stress
  • Plumule
  • Polyethylene glycol
  • principal component analysis
  • Radicle
  • Sesame
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