بررسی ویژگی‌های فتوسنتزی و فیتوشیمیایی برخی از اکوتیپ‌های بنفشه معطر (Viola odorata L.) در استان‌های مازندران و گلستان

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی و پژوهشکده فناوری‌های زیستی گیاهان دارویی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

10.30495/iper.2021.686563

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی با استفاده از ویژگی­های ظاهری و فیتوشیمیایی گیاه بنفشه معطر
(Viola odorata L.)، 10 منطقه از استان­های مازندران و گلستان بررسی شد. صفات فیتوشیمیایی نظیر میزان ترکیبات فنلی، فلاونوئیدها، ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل ­کل و صفات ریخت شناسی از جمله طول و عرض برگ، طول دم برگ و طول ریشه ارزیابی گردید. در بررسی صفات فیتوشیمیایی ژنوتیپ­های مناطق ساری و کسوت دارای بالاترین میزان کلروفیل b و کلروفیل­ کل بوده و اکوتیب ساری از بالاترین میزان فلاونوئید بر خوردار بودند. از نظر میزان ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی، دو اکوتیپ ساری و وری، با غلظت مهار 60 درصد رادیکال­های آزاد بالاترین مقدار را نشان دادند. اکوتیب­های مناطق زنگلاب، آق­چشمه، تنگه­چهل­چای با ارتفاع از سطح دریای کمتر نسبت به مناطق دیگر مورد مطالعه، بالاترین میزان فنل کل را به میزان 25 میلی‌گرم اسید گالیک در گرم وزن خشک را نشان دادند. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی ریخت شناسی نشان داد، بیشترین اندازه طول برگ را اکوتیب­های وری، ساری و کسوت نشان دادند و اکوتیب­های ازنی و وری بیشترین اندازه طول ریشه را دارا بودند. همچنین، اکوتیپ­های وری، کسوت، چهل چای و زنگلاب بالاترین میزان طول دم برگ و اکوتیپ چهل چای بالاترین تعداد برگ را نشان دادند. نتایج همبستگی صفات نشان داد که با افزایش ارتفاع از سطح دریا میزان طول برگ، عرض برگ، طول دم برگ، تعداد برگ، فلاونوئید برگ و فنل برگ گیاه بنفشه معطر کاهش می­یابد. به‌طورکلی اکوتیب­های ساری، وری وکسوت در استان مازندران در اکثر ویژگی­های عملکردی دارای ژنوتیب­های برتر جهت کارهای اصلاحی در آینده می­باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of morphological and phytochemical traits in some endogenous genotypes of sweet violet (Viola odorata l.) in Mazandaran and Golestan provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Moradi 1
  • Mahdi Haddadinejad 2
  • Alireza Yavari 3
  • Mahdi Mohammadi Azni 2
  • SeyedMaryam Musavi 2
  • Syyed Mohammad Amin Hosseini 2
1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Research Institute of Medicinal Plants Biotechnologies (RIMPBio), Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Department of Horticulture Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate genetic diversity using phenotype and phytochemical properties of sweet violet (Viola odorata), 10 regions of Mazandaran and Golestan provinces were studied. Phytochemical traits such as phenol content, flavonoid, antioxidant capacity, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and morphological characters of leaf size, petiole length, pedicel length, and root length were evaluated. Sari and Kosout genotypes had the highest chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents and the Sari ecotype had the highest flavonoid content. The highest level of antioxidant capacity was observed in Sari and Vari ecotypes. The ecotypes of Zanglab, Aq Cheshmeh, Tangeh Chehel Chai with lower height showed the highest total phenol contents. Results of morphological evaluation showed that ecotypes of Vari, Sar,i and kosout had the longest leaves and  ecotypes of Azni and Vari had the longest roots. Also, ecotypes of Vari, kosout, Tangeh Chehel Chai, and Zanglab had the highest petiole length and Tangeh Chehel Chai ecotype had the highest leaf number. Correlation of traits showed that leaf height, leaf width, petiole length, leaf number, leaf flavonoid, and leaf phenol contents of sweet violet decreased with increasing altitude. In general, Sari, Vari, and Kosoot ecotypes from Mazandaran province had superior genotypes for most of the traits that could be used for future breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecotype
  • Iranian violet
  • Morphological diversity
  • Phytochemical compounds
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