تاثیر نانو ذرات نقره‌ سنتز شده زیستی بر روی برخی از شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی بنفشه سه رنگ (Viola tricolor L.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست شناسی ، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد علوم وتحقیقات ،دانشگاه آزاداسلامی،تهران،ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی ، دانشکده علوم پایه ،واحد بروجرد ،دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، بروجرد،ایران

چکیده

استفاده از نانوذرات زیستی نقش مهمی در افزایش بهره وری کشاورزی ایفا می­کند. در سال­های اخیر استفاده از نانوذرات در گیاهان به ­عنوان آفت­کش­ها، عوامل حفاظتی و مواد مغذی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. بنفشه سه رنگ گیاه دارویی از خانواده ویولاسه است که دارای خواص دارویی ضد باکتریایی، ضد قارچی وضد سرطانی است. در این پژوهش نانوذره­ی نقره به­وسیله نیترات ­نقره و عصاره گیاه بنفشه سه رنگ زیست سنتز شد و سپس اثر غلظت­های مختلف نانوذرات نقره بر برخی شاخص­های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه بنفشه سه رنگ مطالعه گردید. نتایج نشان داد شاخص­های مختلف رشد از جمله وزن­تر ریشه و ساقه، طول ریشه و ساقه به­طور معنی­داری تحت تاثیر نانوذرات نقره افزایش یافت، به­طوری‌که بیشترین میزان این شاخص­ها به ترتیب در غلظت­های 0، 10، 50 و 100 میلی­گرم در لیتر نانوذرات نقره مشاهده شد. همچنین میزان پرولین و کربوهیدرات تحت تاثیر غلظت­های نانوذرات نقره در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار این شاخص­هادر 100میلی­گرم در لیتر نانوذرات نقره مشاهده شد. . میزان متابولیت­های ثانوی از جمله فنل و فلاونوئید تحت تاثیر نانوذرات نقره در غلظت 100 میلی­گرم در لیتر بودند که با بیشترین افزایش همراه بود. حداکثر افزایش میزان آنتوسیانین تحت تاثیر غلظت 10 میلی­گرم در لیتر نانوذرات نقره بود. نتایج بررسی فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی‌اکسیدان نشان داد، در تمام غلظت­های نانوذرات نقره، فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدانی افزایش یافته است. افزایش فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی اکسیدانی (کاتالاز، گلوتاتیون­ ردوکتاز) تحت تاثیر نانوذرات نقره منجر به کاهش فعالیت محتوای مالون دی­آلدئید  شد. براساس نتایج این تحقیق، نانوذرات نقره به عنوان محرکی مناسب جهت افزایش رشد و تولید میزان صفات آنتی­ اکسیدانی پیشنهاد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles on some physiological and biochemical parameters of viola tricolor (Viola tricolor L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • arefeh hassanvand 1
  • Sara Saadatmand 1
  • hossin lariyazdi 2
  • Alireza iranbakhsh 1
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of base Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Biology,Boroujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University , Boroujerd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Employing biosynthesized nanoparticles plays an important role in increasing efficiency of agricultural practices. In recent years, the use of nanoparticles in plants has been considered as pesticides, protective agents, and nutrients. Viola tricolor belongs to the Violaceae family, which has antibacterial, anticancer, and antiviral properties. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using silver nitrate and Viola tricolor extract to investigate the effect of different concentrations of silver nanoparticles on the physiologic and biochemical indexes of Viola tricolor. Results showed that different growth parameters including root and stem fresh weight, root and shoot length, and protein content significantly increased under AgNPs. The highest levels of these indices were observed at 0, 10, 50 and 100 ppm silver nanoparticles, respectively. Proline and carbohydrates also increased under different concentrations of AgNPs compared with the control and the highest values of these indices were observed under 100 ppm silver nanoparticles. The contents of secondary metabolites, including phenol and flavonoids, were affected under 100 ppm AgNP showing the highest increase. The maximum increase in the anthocyanin content was observed at 10 ppm AgNPs. Analysis of the antioxidant enzyme activities showed that they increased under all AgNPs concentrations of the study. Increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase) under AgNPs treatments led to a decrease in MDA content. Based on the results of the current study, silver nanoparticles are suggested as proper stimulants for increased growth and production of antioxidant properties.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anthocyanin
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione reductase
  • Malondialdehyde
  • root growth
Abraham, E., Rigo´, G., Sze´kely, G., Nagy, R., Koncz, C. and Szabados, L. )2003). Light-dependent induction of proline biosynthesis by abscisic acid and salt stress is inhibited by brassinosteroid in Arabidopsis. Plant Molecular Biology. 51: 363–372.
Agarwal, H., Kumar, S.V. and Rajeshkumar, S. (2018). Antidiabetic effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized using lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) through conventional heating and microwave irradiation approach. Journal of Microbioogy, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 9(6): 371-376.
Aghajani, Z., pourmeidanI, A. and EkhtiyarI, R. (2013). Effect of nano-silver on stages of plant growth and yield and composition of essential oil of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8: 707-710
Arora, A., Sairam, R.K. and Srivastava, G.C. (2002). Oxidative stress and antioxidant system in plants. Plant Physiology. 82: 1227-1237.
Beers, G.R. and Sizer, I.V. (1952). Aspectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Biological Chemistry. 195:133-140.
Bates, L.S., Waldron, R.P. and Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39: 205–208.
Begum, S., Zahid, A., Khan, T., Zaman Khan, N. and Waqar, A. (2020). Comparative analysis of the effects of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolism in callus cultures of Fagonia indica. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 26:1379-1750.
Bhakya, S., Muthukrishnan, S., Sukumaran, M. and Muthukumar, M. (2016). Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Applied Nanoscience. 6: 755-766.
Bohnert, H.J., Nelson, D.E. and Jensen, R.G. (1995). Adaptations to environmental stresses. The Plant Cell, 7: 1099-1111.
Chand, K., Abro, M.I., Aftab, U., Shah, A.H., Lakhan, M.N., Cao, D. and Mehdi, G. (2019). Green synthesis characterization and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of silver nanoparticles using extracts of neem, onion and tomato. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances. 9: 17002-17015.
Chang, C-C., Yang, M-H., and Wen, H-M. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and drug analysis. 10: 178-182.
Chung, I-M., Rajakumar, G., and Thiruvengadam, M. (2018). Effect of silver nanoparticles on phenolic compounds production and biological activities in hairy root cultures of Cucumis anguria. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 69:97–109
Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Analytical Chemistry. 28(3): 350–356.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Nabavi, S.M., Nabavi S.F., Bahramian, F. and Bekhradnia, A.R. (2010). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of H. officinalis L. var, angustifolius, V. odorata, B. hyrcana and C. speciosum. Pak J Pharm Sci. 23(1): 29-34.
Forough, M., and Farhadi, K. (2011). Biological and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 34(4): 281-287.
Ghorbani, A., Razavi, S.M., Omran, V.O.G., and Pirdashti, H. (2018). Piriformospora indica alleviates salinity by boosting redox poise and antioxidative potential of tomato. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 65(6): 898–907.
Heath, R.L. and Packer, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 125(1): 189-198
Iris, F., Benzi, F. and Strain, S. (1999). Ferric reducing antioxidant Assay. Methods in Enzymology. 292: 15-27.
Isah, T. (2019). Stress and defense responses in plant secondary metabolites production Biological Research. 52: 39.
Jacob, S.J.P., Finub, J. and Narayanan, A. (2012). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using piper longum leaf extracts and its cytotoxic activity against Hep-2 cell line.
Jurca, T., Pallag, A., Marian, E. and Eugenia, M. (2019). The histo-anatomical investigation and the polyphenolic profile of antioxidant complex active ingredients from three viola species. FARMACIA, 67(4): 634-640.
Kamal Kumar, V., Muthukrishnan, S. and Rajalakshmi, R. (2020). Phytostimulatory effect of phytochemical fabricated nanosilver (AgNPs) on Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. seed germination: An insight from antioxidative enzyme activities and genetic similarity studies. Current Plant Biology, 23:100158.
Karimi, J. and Mohsenzadeh, S. (2017). Physiological Effects of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nitrate Toxicity in Triticum aestivum. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science. 41: 111-120.
Karuppusamy, S. (2009). A review on trends in production of secondary metabolites from higher plants by in vitro tissue, organ and cell cultures. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 3:1222–1239.
Khanna-Chopra, R. and Selote, DS. (2007). Acclimation to drought stress generates oxidative stress tolerance in drought- resistant than -susceptible wheat cultivar under field conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 60: 276-283
Khodakovskaya, M.V., de Silva, K., Biris, A.S., Dervishi, E. and Villagarcia, H. (2012). Carbon nanotubes induce growth enhancement of tobacco cells. American Chemical Society Nano. 6:2128-2135.
Krishnaraj, C., Jagan, E.G., Ramachandran, R., Abirami, S.M., Mohan, N. and Kalaichelvan, P.T. (2012). Effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Plant growth metabolism. Process Biochemistry. 47: 651-658.
Kruszka, D., Sawikowska, A. and Selvakesavan, R. (2020). Silver nanoparticles affect phenolic and phytoalexin composition of Arabidopsis thaliana Science of the Total Environment. 70(16):135-361.
Kumar, V., Muthukrishnan, S. and Rajalakshmi, R. (2020). Phytostimulatory effect of phytochemical fabricated nanosilver (AgNPs) on Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Seed germination: An insight from antioxidative enzyme activities and genetic similarity studies. Current Plant Biology. 23: 100-158.
Lee, C.W., Mahendra, S., Zodrow, K. and Li, D. (2010). Developmental phytotoxicity of metal oxide nano-particles to Arabidopsis thaliana. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 29(3): 669-675.
Lu, C.M., Zhang, C.Y., Wen, J.Q. and Wu, G.R. (2002). Research on the effect of nanometer materials on germination and growth enhancement of Glycine max and its mechanism. Soybean Science. 21: 68-171.
McDonald, S., Prenzler, P.D., Antolovich, M. and Robards, K. (2001). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food chemistry. 73: 73-84.
Mehrian, S.K. and Karimi, N. (2017). Biological testing of the chemically synthesized silver nano-particles for nitrate, chloride, potassium and sodium contents, and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of tomato plants. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 22: 48-55.
Nair, P.M.G. and Chung, I.M. (2014). Physiological and molecular level effects of silver nanoparticles exposure in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Chemosphere, 11(2):105–113.
Naznin, A. and Hasan, N. (2009). In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Leaves and Flowers Extracts of Lippia Alba. Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 4(1): 107-110.
Rajaei, S.M., Niknam, V., Seyedi, S.M., Ebrahimzadeh, H. and Razavi, K. (2009). Contractile roots are the most sensitive organ in Crocus sativus to salt stress. Biology Plantarum. 53(3): 523-529.
Rani, P.U., Yasur, J., Loke, K.S. and Dutta, D. (2016). Effect of synthetic and biosynthesized silver nanoparticles on growth, physiology and oxidative stress of water hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes (mart) solms. Acta physiologiae plantarum. 38: 58.
Rapisarda, P., Fanella, F. and Maccarone, E. (2000). Reliability of analytical methods for determining anthocyanins in blood orange juices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48(6):2249-2252.
Rezvani, N., Sorooshzadeh, A. and Farhadi, N. (2012). Effect of Nano-Silver on Growth of Saffron in Flooding Stress. World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology. 6(1): 517-522.
Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V. and Srivastava, G.C. (2003). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science.163:1037-1046.
Salachna, P., Byczynska, A., Zangineszka, A., Piechocki, R. and Mizielinska, M. (2019). Stimulatory effect of silver on the growth and flowering of potted oriental lilies. Agronomy.9:610.
Sharma, K., Sharma, R., Shit, S. and Gupta, S. (2012). Nanotechnological application on diagnosis of a plant disease. In: International Conference on Advances in Biological and Medical Sciences. Pp 149–150.
Shin SW, Song, I.H. and Um, SH. (2015). Role of physicochemical properties in nanoparticle toxicity. Nanomaterials. 5:1351-65.
Shavalibor, A., and Ismailzadeh, B. (2019). The effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized by biological method on growth, physiological and biochemical properties of Melissa officinalis L. 8(32):19-34.
Siddiqui, M.H., Al-Whaibi, M.H., Firoz, M., Y. and Al-Khaishany, M. (2015). Role of nanoparticles in plants. In: Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences. pp. 19-35.
Yasar, F., Ellialtioglu, S. and Yildiz, K. (2008). Effect of Salt Stress on Antioxidant Defense Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Chlorophyll Content in Green Bean. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 55(6): 782-786.
Yin, L., Cheng, Y., Espinasse, B., Colman, B.P., Auan, M. and Wiesner, M. (2011). More than the ions:the effects of silver nanoparticles on Lolium multiflorum. Environmental Science Technology. 45: 2360–2367.
Vukics, V., Kery, A., Bonn, G. and Guttman, A. (2008). Major flavonoid components of heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) and their antioxidant activities. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 309: 1917-1925.