عملکرد ارقام مختلف گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) به کاربرد منابع مختلف کودی تحت شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تکنولوژی تولیدات گیاهی، آموزشکده فنی‌مهندسی و کشاورزی دهلران، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

3 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، صندوق پستی3697-19395 تهران، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر باکتری­های افزاینده رشد گیاه روی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک ارقام جدید گندم دیم، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی چرداول در سال زراعی 99-1398 اجرا شد. تیمار­های آزمایشی شامل ارقام مختلف گندم (سرداری، کریم، کوهدشت و ریژاو) و تیمار منابع مختلف کودی شامل: شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ منبع کودی)، 50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، باکتری آزوﺳﭙﺮﯾﻠﯿﻮم+50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، باکتری ازﺗﻮﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮ+50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، باکتری آزوﺳﭙﺮﯾﻠﯿﻮم+ ازﺗﻮﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮ+50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 100 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن بودند. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که اثر برهمکنش رقم×منابع کودی بر فعالیت برخی آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدان و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی تاثیر معنی‌دار داشت. رقم ریژاو×باکتری آزوﺳﭙﺮﯾﻠﯿﻮم+ ازﺗﻮﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮ+50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن موجب افزایش فعالیت­های آسکوربات­پراکسیداز ، گلوتاتیون­پراکسیداز کاتالاز ، پراکسیداز، سوپر اکسید­دسموتاز ، کاروتنوئیدها ،کلروفیلa ، کلروفیل b ، محتوای آب نسبی ، موجب کاهش میزان مالون­دی­آلدئید و پراکسید­هیدروژن گردید و رقم سرداری در شاهد (عدم مصرف کود زیستی و شیمیایی نیتروژن) دارای کمترین میزان فعالیت­های آسکوربات­پراکسیداز، پراکسیداز، سوپر اکسید­دسموتاز و رنگیزه­های فتوسنتزی بود. بنابراین با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده نشان داده شد که گندم رقم ریژاو×باکتری آزوﺳﭙﺮﯾﻠﯿﻮم+ازﺗﻮﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮ+50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن به دلیل بالا­بودن خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و در نهایت افزایش رشد گیاه در شرایط دیم می­تواند توصیه گردد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under application of different fertilizer sources in dryland farming

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Naseri 1
  • Amir Mirzaei 2
  • Abas Soleymanifard 3
1 Department of Plant Production Technology, Dehloran Faculty of Agriculture and Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ilam,Iran
3 Department of Agriculture, Pyame Noor University. PO.BOX 19395-4697. Tehran. Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of growth-promoting bacteria on physiologic traitsof new dryland wheat cultivars, a factorial field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications on the farms of Sarablah Agricultural Research Center in the cropping season during 2019-2020. Experimental treatments included different wheat cultivars (Sardari, Karim, Koohdasht, and Rijaw) and different fertilizer sources including control (without fertilizer source), 50% N fertilizer, Azospirillum+50% N fertilizer, Azetobacter + 50% N fertilizer, Azospirillum + Azetobacter+50% N fertilizer, and 100% N fertilizer. The results of this experiment showed that the interaction effect of cultivar × fertilizer sources had a significant effect on the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and physiological properties. Rijaw cultivar × Azospirillum + Azetobacter+ 50% N fertilizer increased the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (80.9%), glutathione peroxidase (80%), catalase (71.7%), peroxidase (74.1%), superoxide dismutase (74%), carotenoids (72.1%), chlorophyll a (86.1%), chlorophyll b (88.2%), and relative water content (45.4%) while reduced the amount of Malondialdehyde (65.9%) and hydrogen peroxide (91.8%). Moreover, Sardari cultivar × control treatment (without fertilizer sources) had the lowest activities of ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and photosynthetic pigments. Therefore, according to the results of the study, wheat cultivar Rijaw × Azospirillum + Azetobacter+ 50% N fertilizer may be recommended for cultivation in dryland conditions considering the improved physiological characteristics and ultimately increased plant growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glutathione synthetase
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • Photosynthetic pigments
  • Proline
  • superoxide dismutase
 
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