بررسی تاثیر سینرژیستیک گیاه‌پالایی و ایزوله باکتریایی در حذف هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک حلقوی (PAHs) از خاک آلوده

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست و منابع طبیعی، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

2 گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

3 گروه محیط زیست، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

هیدروکربن­های آروماتیک سرطان­زا و سمی بوده و آسیب­های جدی به محیط زیست و موجودات زنده وارد می­کنند. این ترکیبات عموماً به خاک­ها تخلیه می­شوند. روش­های بیولوژیکی با بکارگیری میکروارگانیسم­های موثر جدا شده از خاک­های آلوده نفتی و گیاهان مقاوم برای پاکسازی این خاک­ها ترجیح داده می­­شوند. هدف مطالعه­ حاضر بررسی اثر گیاه کنوکارپوس (Conocarpus erectus) و باکتری سودوموناس آئروژینوزا (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) بر میزان حذف Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  از خاک­های آلوده و شور حوضچه­ تبخیر واحد نمکزدایی در طول 275 روز و در شرایط غیرآزمایشگاهی بود. آزمایش بصورت فاکتوریل با دو فاکتور، در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار طراحی شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل4 سطح (گیاه، باکتری، گیاه و باکتری و خاک بدون کاربرد گیاه و باکتری «به­عنوان شاهد») و غلظت آلاینده در 5 سطح نفت خام بنگستان ­با­ غلظت­های صفر، 5/0، 1، 5/2 و 5 درصد وزنی بود. با افزایش غلظت هیدروکربن در هر 5 سطح، درصد حذف و نیز وزن خشک ریشه، اندام هوایی گیاه و کلروفیل کاهش یافت. بالاترین درصد حذف در دو غلظت صفر و1  درصد با درصدهای 43/99، 89/59 و 01/57 درصد به تیمارهای دارای باکتری و گیاه، تیمارهای جداگانه باکتری و گیاه تعلق داشت.. کارایی گیاه و باکتری در حذف هیدروکربن­های نفتی تقریباً برابر بود. تیمارهای دارای باکتری در مقایسه با تیمارهای فاقد آن کلروفیل، وزن خشک ساقه و اندام هوایی بیشتری داشتند .نتایج نشان داد که حضور گیاه و باکتری به صورت جداگانه اثر مثبتی برتجزیه میزان PAHs داشت اما اثر سینرژیستیک باکتری و گیاه در تجزیه میزان PAHs مثبت­تر بود (05/0P<).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of synergistic phytoremediation and bacterial isolates on removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Khazaei 1
  • Alireza Etminan 2
  • Soolmaz Dashti 3
  • Seyed Ahmad Hosseini 1
1 Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Department of Plant breeding and Biotechnology, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Having carcinogenic and toxic effects, aromatic hydrocarbons cause serious damage to the environment and living organisms. These compounds are mainly discharged into the soil. For the remediation of contaminated soils, biological methods utilizing the efficient microorganisms isolated from the oil-contaminated soils as well as resistant plants are preferred. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Conocarpus erectus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated and saline soils of the salt separation pond of a desalination unit during 275 days under non-laboratory condition. The study was conducted in a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized design with three replications. The factors used in this experiment included four treatment types (plant, bacteria, plant-bacteria cultivated in the soil, and soil with no plant and bacteria (control)) and the concentration of contaminant (Bangestan crude oil) with 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 wt%). As hydrocarbon concentrations increased at all five levels, the percentage of PAHs removal, the dry weight of roots and shoots, and chlorophyll contents decreased. At 0 and 1 % concentrations, the highest percentages of removal were obtained as 99.43, 59.89, and 57.01 for bacteria-plant treatment and separate bacterial and plant treatments, respectively (p≤0.05). The plant and the bacteria showed almost equal efficiency in the removal of oil hydrocarbons (p≤0.05). Bacterial treatments led to increased chlorophyll content as well as higher dry weight of roots and shoots compared with the treatments without bacteria (p≤0.05). Results indicated that individual treatments of plant and bacteria had a positive effect on the decomposition rate of PAHs. However, the rate was more positively influenced by the synergistic activity of the bacteria and plants (p≤0.05).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bacteria
  • phytoremediation
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Synergistic
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