برهمکنش کروم و شوری بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زیست شناسی ، دانشگاه پیام نور، صندوق پستی 19395- 3697 تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی برهمکنش کلرید‌سدیم با کروم بر صفات رویشی، فیزیولوژیکی و جذب و تجمع سدیم و کروم در ریشه و اندام‌های هوایی خرفه می‌باشد. بمنظور بررسی آن، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 3 تکرار و 4 سطح شوری (0، 4، 8 و 12 دسی‌زیمنس‌ بر‌ متر) با استفاده از کلرید‌سدیم هر 4 روز از طریق آبیاری و 5 سطح کروم (0، 7، 14، 21 و 28 میلی‌گرم بر کیلو‌گرم وزن خشک خاک) در شرایط گلدانی آزمایش انجام شد و قبل از کشت بذر در خاک با افزایش دی ‌کرومات ‌پتاسیم به خاک سطوح مختلف تیمار کروم تهیه شد. سدیم ریشه و بخش‌های هوایی، طول ریشه و ساقه، قطر و سطح ریشه، شاخص سبزینگی، فاکتور انتقال و تجمع ‌زیستی پس از 60 روز از کشت آنها اندازه‌گیری و سنجش شدند. نتایج نشان داد افزایش سطوح مختلف شوری با افزایش معنی‌داری محتوای سدیم و کروم ریشه، بخش‌های هوایی و فاکتور تجمع ‌زیستی همراه بود. بیشترین میزان کروم، سدیم و فاکتور تجمع ‌زیستی در سطوح شوری 12 دسی‌زیمنس‌ بر‌ متر و کروم 28 میلی‌گرم بر کیلو‌گرم مشاهده گردید. برهمکنش شوری و کروم معنی‌دار بود.  با افزایش شوری میزان فاکتور انتقال ریشه گیاه روند افزایشی نشان داد و با افزایش کروم فاکتور انتقال کاهش یافت. طول، قطر و سطح ریشه و طول ساقه و شاخص سبزینگی کاهش معنی‌داری در گیاهان تحت تیمار کروم و شوری نشان داد. تنش ترکیبی سطح بالای کروم و شوری، باعث کاهش بیشتر غلظت و تجمع مواد معدنی نسبت به دو تنش به تنهایی شد. اگرچه شوری و کروم سبب کاهش رشد گیاه خرفه شد اما بنظر می‌رسد با انباشتگی مقادیر قابل توجه سدیم و کروم در ریشه از انتقال بیش از حد آنها به اندام هوایی و کاهش بیشتر رشد جلوگیری می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The interaction effect of sodium chloride and chromium on some physiological characteristics of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Talebzadeh
  • Rahele Rahbarian
  • Mohabat Nadaf
  • Hamid Sobhanian
Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of sodium chloride with chromium on vegetative, and physiological traits, uptake, and accumulation of sodium and chromium in roots and shoots of portulaca oleracea. In a completely randomized design with 3 replications, 4 salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12 dsm-1‌) using sodium chloride every 4 days through irrigation water and five levels of chromium (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 mgkg-1 of dry soil weight) were applied in a pot experiment. Different levels of chromium treatment were prepared before sowing the seeds by adding potassium dichromate to the soil. The amounts of root chromium and shoots were measured by the atomic absorption spectrometry. Sodium contents of roots and shoots, root and stem length, root diameter and surface, greenness index, transfer factor, and bioaccumulation were measured after 60 days of cultivation. Results showed that an increase in different salinity level was associated with a significant increase in sodium and chromium content of roots, shoots and bioaccumulation factor. The highest amount of chromium, sodium, and bioaccumulation factor were observed at salinity levels of 12 dsm-1‌ and 28 mgkg-1. The interaction between salinity and chromium was significant. With an increase in the salinity level, the amount of plant root transfer factor showed an increasing trend and with increasing chromium, the transfer factor decreased. Root length, diameter, and surface as well as stem length and greenery index showed a significant decrease in plants treated with chromium and salinity. The combined effect of high levels of chromium and salinity led to a further reduction in the concentration and accumulation of minerals compared to each stress alone. Although salinity and chromium reduced the growth of portulaca oleracea, it seems that accumulation of significant amounts of sodium and chromium in the roots, prevents their excessive transfer to the shoots and further reduction in plant growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioaccumulation
  • chromium
  • Portulaca oleracea
  • salt
  • sodium
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