رفتار گیاه در پاسخ به تنش سرما

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده گل و گیاهان زینتی، موسسه باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، محلات، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جهرم، جهرم، ایران

چکیده

تنش­های محیطی همواره به عنوان یکی از عوامل مهم محدود کننده رشد و نمو و تولید مثل گیاهان می‌باشند. تنش سرمایی یکی از مهمترین نوع این تنش­ها بوده که هر ساله خسارات زیادی محصولات مختلف گیاهی وارد می کند و بعنوان تهدیدی برای تولید پایدار محصولات گیاهی می باشد. به طی فصل پاییز، تغییرات مورفولوژی، فیزیولوژی، بیوشیمیایی و مولکولی، گیاهان را برای مقابله و تحمل دماهای پایین فصل زمستان آماده می­کند. مطالعه سطح سلولی تنش، به منظور دستکاری­های ژنتیکی برای کسب مقاومت به سرما در گیاهان ضروری است. در صورت بروز سرماهای زودرس پاییزه یا سرماهای دیررس بهاره صدمات مختلفی به گیاه وارد خواهد شد. کسب سازگاری در فصل پاییز برای تحمل شرایط زمستان ضروری است. روند کلی کسب سازگاری تقریبا در تمامی گیاهان مشابه بوده ولی با توجه به نوع گیاه و شرایط منطقه تفاوت­هایی وجود دارد. اندام مختلف گیاه، درجات و صدمات متفاوتی را بعد از گذراندن تنش سرما نشان خواهند داد که با رعایت برخی اصول کشاورزی، خسارات احتمالی تا حد زیادی قابل کنترل خواهند بود. تقویت به موقع و جلوگیری از هر گونه تنش به گیاه صدمات ناشی از سرما را به حداقل خواهند رساند. مرور کلی مسیرهای ایجاد صدمات تنش سرما و مکانیسم مقابله گیاه می­تواند برای جلوگیری از ایجاد خسارات تا حد ممکن مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Plant behaviors in response to cold stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam karimi alavijeh 1
  • abdolkarim zarei 2
1 Department of Genetics and Breeding, Ornamental Plants Research Center (OPRC), Horticultural Sciences Research Institute (HSRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mahallat, Iran
2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics (Biotechnology), College of Agriculture, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iranahroum university
چکیده [English]

Environmental stresses are among the main factors limiting growth and reproduction of the plants. Cold stress is one of the most important environmental stresses which incurs serious losses to different plant products and is considered as a threat to sustainable plant production. A set of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that occur during the autumn acclimates plant species to the low winter temperatures. Investigation of cold tolerance mechanisms at the cellular levels is a vital step in genetic manipulations for the purpose of improving plants’ resistance against cold. The occurrence of sudden low temperatures either in early autumns or late springs incurs various damages to plants. Cold acclimation during the autumn is necessary for plants to tolerate the low temperatures in winter. Although the overall adaptive process through which plants become tolerant to the low temperature is similar, this phenomenon varies slightly according to the plant species and climate condition. Moreover, when experiencing cold stress, different plant organs show various degrees of injuries, which can be minimized following proper agricultural practices through plant reinforcement. In fact, in time strengthening of the plant and avoiding any stress source can minimize the cold stress damages to the plant. An overview of the causes of cold stress injuries and plant response mechanisms can be helpful in reducing a part of low temperature detrimental effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acclimation
  • Adaptation
  • Cold stress
  • Injury
  • Plant species
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