پاسخ دفاع بیوشیمیایی خیار گلخانه‌ای‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ (Cucumis sativus L.) به بیماری کمپلکس نماتد ریشه‌گرهی و قارچ پژمردگی فوزاریومی ‌

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

10.30495/iper.2021.679543

چکیده

بیماری کمپلکس نماتد ریشه‌گرهی،Meloidogyne javanica  و پژمردگی فوزاریو­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­می خیار گلخانه‌‌­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ای Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum کشت خیار را در ایران محدود کرده ‌است. لذا دستیابی به رقم مقاوم به ‌‌‌نماتد در کنترل بیماری نقش اساسی دارد. سنجش ترکیبات دفاعی گیاهی در بیماری کمپلکس در دستیابی به مکانیسم‌های ­‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌مولکولی مقاومت و تولید ارقام مقاوم به نماتد کمک می‌کند. به همین دلیل بعد از تلقیح گیاه به شیوه اسپکتروفتومتری سنجش فعالیت پراکسیداز و ترکیبات ‌‌‌‌فنلی در بیماری در شرایط گلخانه انجام گردید. آزمایش فاکتوریل با طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با 14 تیمار طرح‌‌ریزی و شامل تیمارهای شاهد، قارچ تنها، نماتد تنها در چهار‌سطح تلقیح (1500، 3000، 4500 و 6000  لارو سن‌دو نماتد)، قارچ+نماتد به طور همزمان و تیمار تلقیح قارچ یک‌هفته بعد از تلقیح نماتد با چهار‌ تکرار بود. افزایش74/54%  و 34/92% ترکیبات فنلی و 64/50%  و 31/63 % میزان فعالیت پراکسیداز در تیمار‌های تلقیح گیاه با قارچ به تنهایی و تلقیح نماتد به تنهایی (6000  لارو) نسبت به شاهد نشان ‌داد این مواد از ترکیبات دفاعی در خیار می­باشند. نتایج نشان ‌داد که افزایش جمعیت نماتد در تلقیح گیاه در افزایش ترکیبات دفاعی تاثیر ‌دارد. بیماری کمپلکس (تلقیح قارچ بعد از تلقیح نماتد (6000  لارو) منجر به افزایش 80 درصدی ترکیبات فنلی و 48/54 درصدی فعالیت پراکسیداز نسبت به شاهد گردید که ممکن است ناشی از اثرات سینرژیستی پاتوژن‌ها باشد. قارچ بیش از نماتد در افزایش فعالیت پروکسیداز نسبت به ترکیبات فنلی نقش داشت که نشان دهنده واکنش‌های پیچیده پارازیتیسم نماتد در تعامل نماتد-گیاه بود. کاهش ترکیبات دفاعی در رقم نگین (حساس به فوزایوم) و افزایش آن در ارقام خصیب (متحمل به فوزاریوم) و دستجردی (متحمل به نماتد) نشان داد تولید ترکیبات دفاعی ممکن است با مقاومت خیار به عوامل بیماریزا ارتباط داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biochemical defense response of the greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to complex disease caused by a root-knot nematode and Fusarium wilt fungus

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Mohamadian Sarcheshmeh 1
  • Saeed Rezaee 1
  • Alireza Iranbakhsh 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Biology, . Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Complex disease caused by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, has limited cucumber cultivation in Iran. Therefore, access to the nematode-resistant cultivars has a crucial role in disease control. The Assessment of plant defense compounds in the Complex disease helps understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and the production of nematode-resistant cultivars. After inoculation of the plants in a greenhouse, the peroxidase enzyme and the phenolic compounds were measured using spectrophotometric method. The experiment was conducted based on a factorial completely randomized designed with 14 treatments, including control, fungi alone, nematode alone in four inoculations level viz. 1500, 3000, 4500, and 6000 J2s, fungus + nematode simultaneously, and fungus a week after nematode inoculation with 4 replications. Phenolic compounds increased by %54.74 and %92.34 and peroxidase enzyme activity increased by %50.64 and %63.31 in plants inoculated with fungus alone and nematode alone (6000 larvae) compared to the control, showing that these substances act as defensive compounds in cucumber. Results showed that increasing the nematode population in inoculated plants improved the defense compounds levels.  Inoculation of nematode (6000 larvae) followed by fungus led to %80 and %54.48 increases in phenolic compounds and peroxidase activity, respectively as compared with the control which might be attributed to the synergistic effects of pathogens. The fungi had a more active role than nematodes in increasing the peroxidase compared to the phenolic compounds, which indicated the complex nature of nematode parasitism in the nematode-plant interaction. Decrease in the defense compounds in Negin cultivar (susceptible to Fusarium) and increase in the level of these compounds in Khasib (tolerant to Fusarium) and Dastjerdi (tolerant to nematode) cultivars showed that the production of the defensive compounds may be related to the cucumber resistance to pathogens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cucumber
  • Fusarium oxysparum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum
  • interaction
  • Meloidogyne javanica
  • root-knot nematode
  • peroxidase
  • phenolic compounds
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