تاثیر دور آبیاری و تنظیم کننده‌های رشد بر برخی صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک ارقام پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

2 سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، مشهد؛ مجتمع آموزش عالی کشاورزی و دامپروری تربت جام، ایران.

3 سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، موسسه تحقیقات پنبه کشور، گرگان، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تاثیر دور آبیاری و تنظیم کننده‌های رشد بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی ارقام پنبه، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی طی سال­های 1395 و 1396 در ایستگاه تحقیقات پنبه هاشم‎آباد گرگان اجرا شد. فاکتورها شامل دور آبیاری در دو سطح (دو هفته و چهار هفته یک‌بار) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و تیمارهای تنظیم‌کننده رشد با 6 سطح (شاهد، بنزیل آدنین، آبسزیک اسید، سالیسیلیک اسید، براسینواستروئید و سایکوسل) و سه رقم پنبه گلستان، کاشمر و شایان به‌عنوان عوامل فرعی بودند. بر اساس نتایج، با تنش کم‌آبی از میزان پرولین و محتوای نسبی آب برگ کاسته شد. حداکثر میزان پرولین از رقم شایان در تیمار سالیسیلیک اسید حاصل شد. بنزیل آدنین و براسینواستروئید محتوای نسبی آب برگ را افزایش دادند. بیشترین پایداری غشای سلول در رقم کاشمر و دور آبیاری دو هفته یک‌بار مشاهده شد و سایکوسل توانست باعث افزایش  پایداری غشاء گردد. ارتفاع، تعداد گل و تعداد غوزه تحت تأثیر تنظیم‌کننده‎های رشد، دور آبیاری و رقم قرار داشتند. با افزایش دور آبیاری، از ارتفاع بوته، تعداد گل و غوزه تمام ارقام کاسته شد اما تحت تنش کم‌آبی، رقم گلستان از تعداد گل و غوزه بیشتری در مقایسه با ارقام دیگر برخوردار بود. سایکوسل، سالیسیلیک اسید و براسینواستروئید به‎طور معنی‎داری گلدهی ارقام را در هر دو سال و هر دو دور آبیاری افزایش دادند. بنزیل‌آدنین و براسینواستروئید سبب افزایش بیش از 7 درصد در ارتفاع بوته شدند و آبسزیک اسید، سایکوسل و سالیسیلیک اسید باعث کاهش ارتفاع بوته نسبت به شاهد شدند. کاربرد آبسزیک اسید سبب کاهش تعداد غوزه نسبت به شاهد شد. در مجموع، تنظیم کننده‌‌های رشد به‌خصوص سایکوسل و سالیسیلیک اسید سبب افزایش صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی ارقام پنبه شدند که نشان دهنده تأثیر مثبت آنها بر تحمل به خشکی ارقام بوده و تحت شرایط تنش می‌توانند در تعدیل اثرات تنش نقش داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of interval irrigation and growth regulators on some morphophysiological traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • eshaq arekhi 1
  • Hossein Ajam Noruzi 1
  • Kamal Ghasemi Bezdi 2
  • elham faghani 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, University of Torbat-e Jam, Iran University Chancellor, University of Torbat
3 Cotton Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of interval irrigation and growth regulators on morphophysiological traits of cotton cultivars, an experiment was conducted as a split factorial in randomized complete block design in 2017 and 2018 in Hashemabad Cotton Research Station in Gorgan, Iran. Treatments consisted of intervals of irrigation at two levels (two weeks and four weeks) as the main factor and six-level growth regulator treatments (control, benzyl adenine, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroid, and cycocel) and three cotton cultivars (Golestan, Kashmar, and Shayan) were also considered as sub-factors. The results of this study showed that proline content and relative water content of leaf decreased with water deficit stress. Maximum proline content (3.55 µg/g fresh weight) was obtained from Shayan cultivar with salicylic acid. Benzyl adenine and brassinosteroids increased relative leaf water content. The highest cell membrane stability (2.998%) was observed in Kashmar cotton cultivar and two-week interval irrigation, and Cycocel increased the membrane stability by 15%. Plant height, number of flowers, and number of bolls were affected by growth regulators, irrigation intervals, and cultivars. With increasing irrigation period, plant height, flower number, and boll number decreased in all cultivars, but under drought stress, Golestan cultivar had more flowers and boll number than other cultivars. Cycocel, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroids significantly increased flowering of cultivars at both years and both irrigation intervals. Benzyl adenine and brassinosteroids increased plant height more than 7% and abscisic acid, cycocel, and salicylic acid decreased plant height compared with control. Application of abscisic acid reduced the number of bolls by 22% compared with the control. Overall, growth regulators, especially cycocel and salicylic acid, increased the morphophysiological traits of cotton cultivars indicating their positive effect on drought tolerance and it could play a role in moderating stress effects under stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cycocel
  • Membrane stability
  • Proline
  • Salicylic acid
  • Water deficit stress
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