بررسی اثر اندازه میوه و موقعیت آن روی تاج درخت بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی، کربوهیدرات و ترکیبات زیست فعال پرتقال تامسون ناول (Citrus sinensis cv. Thomson Navel)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، فیزیولوژی گیاهی، واحد تنکابن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تنکابن، ایران.

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران.

چکیده

میوه مرکبات سرشار از ترکیبات زیست‌فعال متعدد و مفیدی شامل ویتامین ث، ترکیبات فنلی، انواع فلاوونوئیدها، کاروتنوئیدها و قندها هستند که ارزش غذایی و آنتی­اکسیدانی بالایی دارند. موقعیت میوه روی تاج پوششی درخت و اندازه میوه تأثیر بسزایی در کیفیت و کمیت این ترکیبات در مرکبات دارد. به­همین منظور این پژوهش با هدف بررسی میزان تأثیر موقعیت میوه روی تاج درخت و اندازه میوه بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژی و بیوشیمیایی میوه­ پرتقال تامسون ناول (Citrus sinensis cv. Thomson Navel) انجام شد. در آزمایش اول میوه­ها با اندازه­ متوسط و یکنواخت از دو موقعیت داخل و خارج تاج درخت برداشت شدند و در آزمایش دوم میوه­ها پس از برداشت به سه اندازه­ کوچک، متوسط و بزرگ گروه­بندی شدند. سپس وزن، حجم، طول و عرض میوه، رنگ پوست، ضخامت پوست، میزان عصاره، درصد ماده خشک، TA، TSS، TSS/TA، کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید کل، ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی، میزان فنل­کل، ویتامین ث، قند کل و قندهای احیاکننده به­طور جداگانه در پوست و گوشت میوه ارزیابی و هم­چنین ارزیابی حسی نیز انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که میوه­های برداشت شده از خارج تاج درخت سطح بالاتری را در شاخص­های حجم میوه، ضخامت پوست،TSS/TA ، میزان a*، CCI، ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی پوست و قند کل پوست دارا بودند و در مقابل، میزان TA، L*، C، و b* در میوه­های داخل تاج بالاتر بود. هم‌چنین نتایج نشان داد که اندازه میوه بر شاخص­های فیزیکی میوه، میزان CCI و ، میزان عصاره و درصد ماده خشک تأثیر معنی­داری داشت اما این میوه­ها در صفات کیفی و شیمیایی تفاوت معنی‌داری را نشان ندادند. به‌طورکلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که میوه پرتقال با موقعیت خارج از تاج و اندازه بزرگ افزایش معنی­داری در محتوای عصاره، میزان حجم واقعی، میانگین قطر میوه، عطر، طعم و شیرینی در مقایسه با موقعیت داخل تاج با اندازه کوچک دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of size and canopy position on physicochemical properties, carbohydrate, and bioactive compounds of Thomson Navel orange (Citrus sinensis cv. Thomson Navel)

نویسندگان [English]

  • somayeh Rezaei 1
  • Javad Fatahi moghadam 2
  • Parvaneh Rahdari 1
  • Babak Babakhani 1
  • Mahmoud Asadi 1
1 Department of Biology Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, Iran
2 Agriculture Research Institute, Citrus and Semitropical Fruits Research, Organization of Research, Education, and Extension of Agriculture, Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Citrus fruits contain numerous beneficial bioactive compounds including vitamin C, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, and sugars which have high nutritional and antioxidant value. Some factors such as the canopy position of the fruit and fruit size affect the quality and quantity of these compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of canopy position and fruit size on morphophysiological and biochemical properties of Thomson orange fruit. In the first experiment, fruits with medium and uniform size were harvested from inside and outside canopy positions of the tree. In the second experiment, after harvest the fruits were grouped into three sizes of small, medium, and large. Traits such as weight, volume, length, and width of fruit, skin color, skin thickness, extract content, dry matter percentage, TA, TSS, TSS/TA, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids, antioxidant capacity, phenolic acid content, vitamin C, total sugars, and reducing sugars were evaluated on the peel and pulp of fruit along with a panel test. Results revealed that fruit volume, peel thickness, TSS/TA, a* value, CCI value, peel antioxidant capacity, and peel total sugars were higher in the fruits from the external canopy position while TA, L*, C*, h°, and b* in the fruits from internal canopies were significantly higher. Fruit size had a significant effect on physical parameters of fruit, CCI, h°, juice, and dry matter while it did not affect the quality and chemical traits of fruit. The results of this study showed that orange fruit with a position outside the crown and a large size has a significant increase in extract content, actual volume, average fruit diameter, aroma, taste, and sweetness compared to the position inside the crown with a small size.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Canopy position
  • Carbohydrate
  • Orange
  • Rind pigment
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