بررسی برخی صفات فیزیومورفولوژیکی توده‌های مختلف خرفه ( Portulaca oleracea L) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

10.30495/iper.2021.679527

چکیده

گیاه خرفه (Portulaca Oleracea L.) از گیاهان دارویی ارزشمند مناطق گرم و خشک است. با توجه به این که تنش خشکی یکی از مهمترین عوامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات کشاورزی در این مناطق است، تحقیقی با هدف ارزیابی تحمل توده‌های مختلف گیاه دارویی خرفه به تنش خشکی، در بهار سال 1395 در گلخانه دانشگاه پیام نور شهرستان درگز اجرا شد. این آزمایش، بصورت فاکتوریل درقالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی، با چهار سطح تنش خشکی (حد ظرفیت زراعی، 75 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و 5 توده بومی خرفه (قم، کلات، سبزوار، یزد، گچساران) با سه تکرارانجام شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل محتوای آب نسبی برگ، ضریب ثبات غشاء، میزان رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی، ضریب ثبات کلروفیل (سنجش میزان کلروفیل‌ها وکاروتنوئیدها)، میزان پرولین، میزان کربوهیدرات محلول برگی، وزن تروخشک به تفکیک اندام‌های ریشه، برگ، ساقه، قطرتاج خرفه، تعداد برگ، تعداد انشعابات و ارتفاع بوته در دو مرحله رشد رویشی و زایشی بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که افزایش تنش خشکی سبب کاهش مقدار نسبی آب گیاه، شاخص پایداری غشاء سلول  و افزایش معنی داری در شاخص کلروفیل برگ، مقدارکاروتنوئیدها، پرولین و کربوهیدرات‌های توده‌های مختلف خرفه گردید. ارقام گچساران و یزد تحت شرایط تنش رطوبتی از شاخص پایداری غشاء بالاتر، محتوای آب نسبی برگ کمتر و عدد کلروفیل متر پائین تری برخوردار بودند. همچنین در بین توده‌های مورد بررسی، توده‌های قم و کلات  برتری معنی داری نسبت به توده‌های سبزوار، یزد و گچساران از نظر انباشت پرولین و کربوهیدرات‌های محلول نشان دادند. با افزایش تنش خشکی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه، برگ و ساقه در مراحل رویشی و زایشی کاهش یافت، به‌طوری که بیشترین مقدار این صفات، به‌ترتیب درسطوح 100 و 75 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و کمترین مقدار این پارامترها در آبیاری تحت شرایط 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی حاصل گردید. بنابراین طبق نتایج به‌دست آمده از این پژوهش، بترتیب دو توده قم وکلات در مقایسه با سایرتوده‌ها ازحساسیت کمتری نسبت به تنش خشـکی برخوردار بودند و بـه‌عنوان توده‌های متحمل به خشکی انتخـاب شـدند. تـوده‌های گچساران، یزد و سبزوار نیز به‌دلیل داشتن عکس العمل نسبتاً ضعیف در برابر تنش خشکی در بیشتر صفات اندازه گیری شده، به‌عنوان توده‌های حسـاس به تنش خشکی ارزیابی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of some physio-morphological traits of purslane (portulaca oleracea L.) landraces under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Azizi
  • Younes Rezapour
  • mansooreh kermani
  • ali masoomi
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) is a valuable medicinal plant growing in hot and dry conditions. Since drought stress is one of the most important factors limiting the production of agricultural products in these regions, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of different purslane landraces to drought stress in the greenhouse of Payame Noor University of Daregaz during the spring 2016. The experiment was as factorial based on completely randomized design with four levels of drought stress (field capacity, 75% FC, 50% FC and 25% FC), 5 landraces of purslane (Qom, Kalat, Sabzevar, Yazd, Gachsaran), and with three replications. The studied traits were relative water content, membrane sustainability index, photosynthetic pigment contents, chlorophyll sustainability index (the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids), proline content, soluble carbohydrates, and fresh and dry weight of roots in two stages of vegetative and reproductive growth. Results showed that an increase in water stress level decreased the relative water content and cell membrane stability index while increasing the leaf chlorophyll index, carotenoid content, proline, and carbohydrates in different landraces of purslane. Results also indicated that the landraces of Gachsaran and Yazd had higher membrane stability index, lower RWC, and lower chlorophyll content under stress. Among the studied landraces, Qom and Kalat showed significant superiority compared to Sabzevar, Yazd and Gachsaran landraces in terms of proline and soluble carbohydrates. Also, the results showed that with increasing drought stress, fresh and dry weight of roots, leaves, and stems reduced at vegetative and generative stages of plant development such that the highest morphological and physiological traits in two stages of vegetative and reproductive growth were observed in 75% and 100% of field capacity and the minimum levels of these traits were obtained in 25% of field capacity. In general, Qom and Kalat landraces were more tolerant to drought stress compared to other landraces while Gachsaran, Yazd, and Sabzevar due to the relatively weak response to drought stress in most of the measured traits, were evaluated as susceptible landraces to drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbohydrates
  • dry weight
  • Leaf chlorophyll index
  • membrane Sustainability Index
  • Proline
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