تاثیر آبیاری تکمیلی و کاربرد میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر بر اجزای پر شدن دانه‌ی جو دیم(Hordeum vulgare L.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تاثیر آبیاری تکمیلی و کاربرد میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر بر مولفه­های پرشدن دانه، محتوای کلروفیل و عملکرد دانه جو دیم رقم سهند، آزمایش فاکتوریلی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395 در روستای ویند کلخوران اردبیل انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل سطوح آبیاری (عدم آبیاری یا زراعت دیم، آبیاری تکمیلی در 50 درصد مراحل آبستنی و سنبله­دهی) و کاربرد کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی به عنوان شاهد، کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا، ازتوباکتر، کاربرد توام ازتوباکتر و قارچ میکوریزا) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین محتوای کلروفیلa ،b ، کارتنوئید، کلروفیل کل، فلورسانس حداکثر، فلورسانس متغیر و عملکرد کوانتومی، طول دوره پر شدن دانه و حداکثر وزن دانه در آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله آبستنی با کاربرد توام قارچ میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر، و کم­ترین مقادیر این صفات در شرایط دیم و بدون کاربرد کودهای زیستی به‏دست آمد. بیش­ترین سرعت پر شدن دانه در شرایط دیم بدون کاربرد کودهای زیستی و کم­ترین آن در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله آبستنی با کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا به‌دست آمد. آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله آبستنی با کاربرد توام میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر عملکرد دانه را 87/29 درصد در مقایسه با عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی تحت شرایط دیم افزایش داد. بر اساس نتایج، به­نظر می­رسد کاربرد کودهای زیستی و آبیاری تکمیلی می­تواند به واسطه بهبود کلروفیل و مولفه­های پر شدن دانه، عملکرد جو دیم را افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of supplementary irrigation and application of mycorrhiza and azetobacter on grain filling components of rain fed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • neda ebadi 1
  • raouf seyed sharifi 1
  • hamed narimani 1
  • razieh khalilzadeh 2
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of supplementary irrigation and application of mycorrhiza and azetobacter on grain filling components, chlorophyll content, and grain yield of rain fed barley (Var. Sahand), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in the village of Khalkhoran Viand, Ardabil province during 2017. Factors of the experiment included irrigation levels (no irrigation as rain fed, supplementary irrigation at 50% heading, and booting stages) and biofertilizers application at four levels (without biofertilizers as control, application of mycorrhizal fungi, application of azetobacter, and combined application of mycorrhiza and azetobacter). Results showed that the highest chlorophyll a (1.76 mg/g FW), chlorophyll b (0.88 mg/g FW), carotenoid (0.83 mg/g FW), chlorophyll total contents (2.64 mg/g FW), maximum fluorescence (1433.2), variable fluorescence (1281.3), quantum yield (0.847), grain filling period (32.06 days), and maximum grain weight (58.3 mg) were obtained under supplementary irrigation treatment at boot stage with both application of mycorrhiza and azetobacter while the minimum levels of these traits were obtained under rain fed condition without application of biofertilizers. Moreover, the highest grain filling rate (1.9 mg/day) was obtained under rain fed condition and no application of biofertilizers while the lowest rate was obtained under supplementary irrigation at boot stage with application of mycorrhiza. Supplementary irrigation at boot stage and combined application of mycorrhiza and azetobacter increased grain yield by 29.87% in comparison with no application of biofertilizers under rain fed condition. Based on the results, it seems that application of biofertilizers and supplementary irrigation can increase grain yield of rain fed barley through improving chlorophyll content and grain filling components.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizers
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • grain filling rate
  • Photosynthetic pigments
Abdel, F.G. and Mohamedin, A.H. (2000). Interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizall fungus and streptomyces and their effects on sorghum plants. Biology Fertility of Soils. 32(5): 401-409.
Ahmadi, A. and Baker, D.A. (2001). The effect of water stress on grain filling processes in wheat. J.ournal of Agricultural Science. 136: 257-269.
Alizadeh, O., Alizadeh, A. and Aryana, L. (2010). Optimizing of nitrogen and phosphorus consumption in sustainable agriculture of corn using mycorrhizal and vermicompost. Science-Research Quarterly Journal New Finding in Agriculture. 3(3): 303-316.
Amerian, M.R., Stewart, W.S. and Griffiths, H. (2001). Effect of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizall fungi on growth, assimilation and leaf water relations in maize (Zea mays L.). Aspects Applied Biology. 63: 71-76.
Araus, J.L., Amaro, T., Voltas, J., Nakkoul, H. and Nachit, M.M. (1998). Chlorophyll fluorescence as a selection criterion for grain yield in durum wheat under Mediterranean condition. Field Crop Research. 55: 209-223.
Arnon, A.N. (1967). Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal. 23: 112-121.
Bahari Saravi, S.H., Pirdashti, H. and Yaghobian, Y. (2018). Response of chlorophyll fluorescence and physiological parameters of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 6(19): 89-104.
Bech, D.P., Materon, L.A. and Afandi, F. (1993). Practical rhizobium legume technology manual, Technical Manual No:19. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, pp. 1-54.
Bhardway, R. and Singhal, G. )1981(. Effect of water stress on photochemical activity of chloroplasts during greening etiolated barley seedlings. Plant Cell Physiology, 22(2): 155-162.
Cassan, F., Perrig, D., Sgroy, V., Masciarelli, O., Penna, C. and Luna, V. (2009). Azospirillum brasilense Az39 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, inoculated singly or in combination, promote seed germination and early seedling growth in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L). European Journal of Soil Biology. 45: 28- 35.
Chandrasekhar, B.R., Ambrose, G. and Jayabalan, N. (2005). Influence of biofertilizer and nitrogen source level on the growth and yield of Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link. Journal of Agricultural and Technology. 1(2): 223 -234.
Chaurasia,B.andKhare,P.K.(2005).Hordeum vulgare: A suitable substrate for mass production of arbuscular mycorrhizall fungi from natural soil. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 4: 45-53.
Cooper, K.M. and Tinker, P.B. (2003). Translocation and transfer of nutrients in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal. Uptake and translocation of phosphorus, zinc and sulphur. New Phytologist. 81: 43-52.
Debaeke, P. and Abdellah, A. (2004). Adaptation of crop management to waterlimited environments. European  Journal  Agronomy. 21: 433-446.
Demir, S. (2004). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal on some physiological‚ growth parameters of pepper. Turkish Journal Biology. 28: 85-90.
Dommelen, A.V., Croonenborghs, A. and Spaepen Sand Vanderleyden, A. (2009). Wheat growth promotion through inoculation with an ammonium-excreting mutant of Azospirillum brasilense. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 45(5): 549-553.
Efeoglu, B., Ekmekci, Y. and Cicek, N. (2009). Physiological responses of three maize cultivars to drought stress and recouery. South  African  Journal of Botany. 75: 34-42.
Ellis, R.H. and Pieta-Filho, C. (1992). The development of seed quality spring and winter cultivars of barley and wheat. Seed Science Research. 2: 19-25.
Farmahini, M., Mirzakhani, M. and Sajedi, N. (2014). Effect of water stress and absorbent materials application on yield and components yield of fall wheat. Science-Research Quarterly Journal New Finding in Agriculture. 7(2): 263-274.
Farsari, S. and Moghaddam, M. (2019). Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and foliar application of putrescine on some biochemical characteristics and biomass of basil (Ocimum ciliatum L.) in two different harvesting times. Journal of Iranian Plant Ecophysiological Research. 14(53): 47-58.
Gianinazzi, S., Schuepp, H., Barea, J.M. and Haselwandter, K. (2001). Mycorrhizall technology in agriculture: from genes to bioproducts. Birkhauser, Basel. ISBN: 376436858. Also in: Mycorrhizal. 13: 53-54. Lovato, P. Book  review.
Habibpour-Kashafi, E., Gharineh, M. H., Shafeinia, A. and Rozrokh, M. (2015). Effect zeolite levels on chlorophyll fluorescence red bean (Phasaeolus vulgaris L.) under drought stress. Crop Physiology Journal, 7(28): 19-32.
Hammer, G., Dong, Z., McLean, G., Doherty, A., Messina,C., Schussler, J., Zinselmeier, C., Pszkiewicz, S. and Cooper, M. (2009). Can changes in canopy and/or root systemarchitecture explain historical maize yield trends in U. S. Corn Belt? Crop Science. 49: 299-312.
Hamzei, J. and Seyedi, M. (2014). Response of Yield and Yield Components of Barley Cultivars to Supplementary Irrigation under Rainfed Condition. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 23(4): 159-168.
Hewedy, A.M. (1999). Influence of single and multi-bacterial fertilizer on the growth and fruit yield of tomato. Egypt Journal of Applied Science. 14: 508-523.
Idris, M. (2003). Effect of integrated use of mineral and organic N and Azotobacter on the yield, yield components and N-nutrition on wheat. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 6: 6.539-543.
Khalilzadeh, R., Seyed Sharifi, R. and Jalilian, J. (2016). Antioxidant status and physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cycocel application and bio fertilizers under water limitation condition. International Journal of Plant Science. 11: 1.130-137.
Khalilzadeh, R., Seyed Sharifi, R. and Jalilian, J. (2017). Effects of cycocle and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and some physiological properties of wheat under water limitation condition. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 6 (21): 247-266.
Khalilzadeh, R., Seyed Sharifi, R. and Jalilian, J. (2017). Growth, physiological status and yield of salt-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants affected by bio fertilizer and cycocel applications. Arid Land Research and Managment. 1-20.
Khan, I., Hussain Khalil, I. and Din, N. (2007). Genetic parameters for yield traits in wheat under irrigated and rainfed environments. Sarhad Journal of  Agriculture. 23: 973-979.
Kheirizadeh arough, Y., Seyed Sharifi, R., Sedghi, M. and Barmaki, M. (2016). Effect of zinc and bio Fertilizers on antioxidant enzymes Activity, chlorophyll content, soluble sugars and proline in triticale under salinity condition. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 44(1): 116-124.
Ladjal, M., Huc, R. and Ducrey, M. (2005). Drought effects on hydraulic conductivity and xylem vulnerability to embolism in diverse species and provenances of Mediterranean cedars. Tree Physiology. 25: 1109-1117.
Lawlor, D.W. and Cornic, G. (2002). Photosynthetic cabon assimilation and associatedmetabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell and Environment. 25: 275-294.
Mashi, A., Galeshi, S., Zeinali, E. and Noorinia, A. (2008). Salinity effect on seed yield and yield components in four Hull-les barley. Journal Agricultural Science and Technology. 14: 1-10.
Narimani, H. (2018). Effects of nano iron oxide and supplementary irrigation on yield and some agro-physiological traits of rainfed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). MSC thesis. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Ardabil Iran.
Narimani, H., Seyed Sharifi, R., Khalilzadeh, R. and Aminzadeh, Gh.R. (2018). Effects of nano iron oxide on yield, chlorophyll fluorescence indices and some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under rain fed and supplementary irrigation conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 10(37): 21-40.
Oncel,  I., Keles, Y. and Ustun, A.S. (2000). Interactive of temperature and heavy metal stress on the growth and some biological compounds in wheat seedling. Environmental Pollution. 107: 315-320.
Osonubi, O., Bakare, N. and Mulongoy, K. (1992). Interactions between drought stress and vesiculararbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of Faidherbia albida (syn. Acacia albida) and Acacia nilotica in sterile and non-sterile soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 14: 159-165.
Ouk, M., Shu, F., Ken, B., Jaya, B., Mark, C. and Harry, N. (2003). Routine selection for drought resis tance in rain fed lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Cambodia. In: Procee dings of the International Conference on Research on Water in Agriculture, CARDI, Cambodia.  25-29.
Oweis, T. and Hachum, A. (2009). Optimizing supplemental irrigation: Tradeoffs between profitability and sustainability. Agricultural Water Management. 96: 511-516.
Oyetunji, O., Ekanayake, I. and Osonubi, O. (2007). Chlorophyll fluresence analysis for assessing water deficit and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in cassava. Biological Research. 1: 108-117.
Paknejad, F., Majidi Heravan, E., Noor Mohammadi, Q., Siyadat, A. and Vazan, S. (2007). Effects of drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content and grain yield of wheat cultivars. American  Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 5(4): 162-169.
Ronanini, D., Savin, R. and Hal, A.J. (2004). Dynamic of fruit growth and oil quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to brief interval of high temperature during grain filling. Field Crop Research. 83: 79-90.
Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V. and Saivastava, G.C. (2002). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress; antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science. 163: 1037-1046.
Savin, R., Stone, P.J. and Nicholas, M.E. (1996). Response of grain growth of wheat to short period of high temperature in field studies. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 47: 456- 477.
Seyed Sharifi, R. and Namvar, A. (2015). Bio fertilizers in Agronomy. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili press. 280 pp.
Togay, N., Togay, Y., Cimrin, K.M. and Turan, M. (2008). Effect of rhizobium inoculation, sulfur and phosphorus application on yield, yield components and nutrient uptake in chick pea (Cicer aretinum L.). African Journal Biotechnology. 7: 776-782.
Tsuno, Y., Yamaguchi, T. and Nakano, J. (1994). Potential dry matter production and grain filling process of rice plant from the viewpoint of source-sink relationships and the role of root respiration in its relationship. Bull. Faculty of Agricultural. Tottori University. 47: 1-10.
Yaghini, F. (2018). Effects of supplementary irrigation and bio fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat under rainfed condition. MSC thesis. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Ardabil Iran.
Yang, J. and Zhang, J. (2006). Grain filling of cereals under soil drying. New Phytologist. 169: 2: 223-236.
Yang, J., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Zhu, Q. and Liu, L. (2001). Water deficit-induced senescence and its relationship to the remobilization of pre-stored carbon in wheat during grain filling. Agronomy Journal.  93: 196-206.
Yao, L., Zhan sheng, W. and Zheng, Y. (2010). Growth promotion and protection against salt stress by Pseudomonas putida Rs- 198 on cotton. European Journal of Soil Biology. 46: 49-54.
Yasseen, B.T. and Al-omary, S.S. (1994). An analysis of the effects of water stress on leaf growth and yield of three barley cultivars. Irrigation Science. 14: 3.157-162.
Zahir, Z.A., Munir, A., Asghar, H.N., Shaharoona, B. and Arshad, M. (2007). Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase for growth promotion of pea (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions. Journal Microbiology Biotechnology. 18: 958-963