بررسی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد گیاه گندم (Triticm aestivum L.) با استفاده از منابع تامین نیتروژن و روی و برهمکنش این عناصر

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست شناسی، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

بررسی کاربرد مغذی‌ها و توازن مطلوب میان عناصر و غلظت ترکیبات قابل جذب مورد توجه پژوهشگران علوم زیستی و کشاورزی قرار دارد. در این پژوهش اثر منابع تامین نیتروژن در چهار سطح شامل: 100 درصد اوره، نانوکود کلات ازت، کود بیولوژیک پانارومیکس و 50 درصد اوره + 50 درصد کود بیولوژیک پانارومیکس و منابع تامین روی در 3 سطح: عدم مصرف روی، سولفات روی و نانوکود کلات روی و اثرات متقابل منابع تامین این دو عنصر بر فیزیولوژی و عملکرد گیاه گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) بررسی شد. این تحقیق با روش اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار و 12 تیمار در مزرعه شخصی واقع در شمال شهر جلین واقع در 3 کیلومتری شرق گرگان، در سال زراعی 97-96 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد صفات مورد بررسی تحت تاثیر منابع تامین نیتروژن و اثر متقابل منابع تامین این دو عنصر قرار گرفت، اما از نظر منابع تامین روی اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشتند. در تیمارهای منابع تامین نیتروژن، بیشترین میزان سطح و تعداد برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، کلروفیل b و مجموع کلروفیل (a+b)، نیترات ردوکتاز و عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمارهای 100 درصد اوره و 50 درصد اوره +50 درصد کود بیولوژیک بود. در تیمارهای اثر متقابل، بیشترین میزان پرولین در تیمار 100 درصد کود بیولوژیک + نانوکلات روی مشاهده شد و در تیمارهایی که با افزایش میزان پرولین همراه بود، افزایشی در میزان قندهای محلول و گلایسین بتائین صورت نگرفت. بالاترین میزان فعالیت نیترات ردوکتاز و مقدار کلروفیل a و کلروفیل (a+b) و نیز بالاترین میزان عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک در تیمار 100 درصد اوره + سولفات روی مشاهده گردید. نتایج نشان داد عملکرد بالای گندم در این تیمار تابعی از رفتار فیزیولوژیکی گیاه بوده و نشان دهنده برهم‌کنش مثبت بین عنصر نیتروژن و روی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of morphophysiological characteristics and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using Nitrogen and Zinc sources and their interaction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadali Rezaei 1
  • hossein ajamnorozi 2
  • Mehrali Mahmoudjanlo 1
  • Hassan Modares zadeh 1
1 Department of Biology, Gorgan branch, Islamic Azad University ,Gorgan,Iran
2 Department of Agriculture , Gorgan branch, Islamic Azad University ,Gorgan,Iran
چکیده [English]

The study of use of nutrients and the optimal balance between nutrients and concentrations of absorbable compounds has always attracted the attention of researchers in biological and agricultural sciences. In this research, effects of four levels of Nitrogen sources (100 % urea, nano-chelate nitrogen, 100% Panaromix biologic fertilizer, and 50% urea + 50 % Panaromix biologic fertilizer) along with three levels of Zinc sources (control or without application of Zn, zinc sulfate, and nano-chelate zinc) and interaction effects of hese sources were investigated on physiology and yield of wheat. The study was carried out by split-plot method based on completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications and 12 treatments in a private farm located in the north of Jelin, a city located 3 Km east of Gorgan, during the 2017-2018 crop year. Results showed that the traits under study were affected by the sources of nitrogen supply and the interaction effects of sources of the two elements but there was no significant difference under treatment with sources of zinc supply. In Nitrogen supply sources, the maximum leaf area and number, shoot length, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll (a+b) content, and nitrate reductase activity as well as biological and grain yield was related to 100% urea and 50% urea + 50% biologic fertilizer. In combined treatments with the interaction effects, the highest amount of proline was related to 100% biological fertilizer + nano-chelate zinc and in the treatments that were associated with increased proline, there was no increase in the soluble sugars and glycine betaine contents. The highest level of NR activity, chlorophyll a, and total chlorophyll (a+b) content, and also the highest level of grain performance and biological yield were observed in 100% urea + Zinc sulfate fertilizer treatment. The results showed that high yield of wheat in this treatment was a function of plant physiological behavior, showing a positive interaction between nitrogen and zinc.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Morphological traits
  • Nitrogen Sources
  • physiological indicators
  • Wheat
  • Yield
  • Zinc sources
Abdizade, Kh., Mahdavi Dameghani, A., Sabahi, H. and Soofizade, S. (2010). Effects of Integrated application of biofertiliser and chemical fertilizer on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) in Shushtar. Journal of Agroecology, 2(2): 292-301. (In Persian)
Alam, S.M. and Shereen, A. (2002). Effect of different levels of Zinc and phosphorus on growth and chlorophyll content of wheat. Asian Journal Plant Science 1 (4), 364–366.
Amirjani, M., Askari mehrabadi, M. and Azizmohamadi, F. (2016). Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on vegetative factors, elements content and photosynthetic pigments of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Iranian Journal of plant biology, Volume 8, Number 27; Page(s) 33 - 48. (In Persian)
Arnon, D.J. (1956). Chlorophyll absorption spectrum and quantitative determination. Biochemical and Biophysical Acta 20: 449-461.
Asif, M., Farrukh Saleem, M., Anjum, S.A., Ashfaq Wahid, M. and Faisal Bilal, M. (2013). Effect of nitrogen and zinc sulphate on growth and yield of maize (Zea mayes L.). Journal Agricalture Research, 51(4):455-464.

Askari. M., Amini, F. and Jamali, F. (2015). Effects of zinc on growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline, carbohydrate and protein content of Lycopersicum esculentum under salinity. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 3 (9): 45-58.

Astaraki, F., Lari Yazdi, H., Rafiei, M. and Astaraki, S. (2013).The effect of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugars of safflower leaf (Carthemus tinctorius L.). 2nd National Conference on New Concepts in Agriculture. Saveh branch, Islamic Azad Univercity, in saveh city.

Auld, D.S. (2001). Zinc coordination sphere in biochemical zinc sites. Biometals,14: 271-313.

Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P. and Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies, plant and soil, 39(1): 205–207.

Blom-Zandstra, M. and Lampe, J.E.M. (1983). The effect of chloride and sulphate salts on the nitrate content in lettuce plants, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 6: 611-628.
Bockman, O.C. (2001). Fertilizers and Biological nitrogen fixation as source of plant nutrients: perspectives for future agriculture. Plant and soil, 194:11-14.
Boorboori, M.R. and Tehrani, M.M. (2011). Effect on interactive of values and application method of copper and zinc on plant characteristics and protein of wheat. Crop Physiology Journal. 2(8): 29-44. (In Persian)

Chegeni, H. (2014). Effect of plant density on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi). Article 2, 27(104): 9-21. (In Persian)

Curtis, T. and Halford, N.G. (2014). Food security: the challenge of increasingwheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety. Annals of Applied Biology, 164, 354–372.
Drlik, J. and Rogl, J. (1992). The effect of graduated rates of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrate accumulation in carrots, Zahradnictvi, 19: 39-46.
Ebrahimian, E. and Bybordi, A. (2011). Exogenous silicium and zinc increase antioxidant enzyme activity and alleviate salt stress in leaves of sunflower. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9: 422-427.
 Gheshlaghi, Z., Khorassani, R., Haghnia, G.H. and Kafi, M. (2014). Effect of zinc and harvest times on decrease nitrate accumulation and nitrate reductase enzyme activity in lettuce and spinach grown hydroponically. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology, 5(19): 113-123. (In Persian)
Gibbson, R.S. (2006). Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. University of East Anglia, Norwich.
Graham, R.D., Welch, R.M. and Bouis, H.E. (2001). Addressing micronutrients malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Advanced Agronomy. 70: 77-142.
Gurmani, A.R., Din, J.U., Khan, S.U., Andaleep, R., Waseem, K., Khan, A. and Hadyat-Ullah. (2012). Soil Application of zinc improves growth and yield of tomato. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 14: 91-96.
Hajeeboland, R., Asgharzadeh, N. and Mehrfar, Z. (2004). Ecological Study of Azotobacter in Two pasture lands of the North-west Iran and its Inoculation Effect on Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Omid) Plants. Journal of Water and Soil science; 8 (2): 75-90. (In Persian)
 Hojattipor, E.,  Jafari, B. and  Dorostkar, M. (2014). The effect of integration of biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and growth indexes of wheat. Journal of plant Ecophysiology, Article 4, 5(15): 36-48. (In Persian)
Khayat, S, Mojadam, M. and Alavi Fazel, M. (2014). Effect of nitrogen rates on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of durum wheat genotypes in Khouzestan. Crop Physiology Journal. 6 (21): 103-113. (In Persian)
Kochert, G. (1978). Carbohydrate determination by the phenol sulfuric acid method, In: Helebust, J.A. Craig, J.S (ed): Handbook of physiological method, pp. 56- 97. Cambridge univ. press.Cambridge.
Kosesakal, T. and Unal, M. (2009). Role of zinc deficiency in photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of tomato seedlings. IUFS Journal of Biology, 68 (2): 113–120.
Kutman, U.B., Yidiz, B. and Cakmak, I. (2011). Improved nitrogen status enhances zinc andiron concentrations both in wholegrain and the endosperm fractionof wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 53: 118-125.
Liu, H.E., Wang, Q.Y., Rengel, Z. and Zhao, P. (2015). Zinc fertilization alters flour protein composition of winter wheat genotypes varying in gluten content, Plant Soil Environment 61(5): 195–200.
Ma, X., Geiser-Lee, J., Deng, Y. and Kolmakov, A. (2010). Interactions between engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and plants: Phytotoxicity, uptake and accumulation. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 3053-3061.
Malakouti, M.J. and Riazi Hamedani, S.A. (1974). Soil fertility and fertilizers. Tehran University Press. 3rd edition. 800 pp. (In Persian).
Mirzashahi, K.,  Asadi Rahmani, H.,  Khavazi, K. and Afshari, M. (2013). Effect of Two Kinds of Biofertilizers on Irrigated Wheat Yield in the North of Khuzestan. Iranian Journal of Soil Research,  27(2): 159-168. (In Persian)
Moallem, A.H. and Eshghi Zadeh, H.R. (2007). Application of biological fertilizers: advantages and limitations, Second National Iranian Conference on Ecological Agriculture, Gorgan, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, p. 47. (In Persian)
Mousavi, S.R., Galavi, M. and Rezaei, M. (2013). Zinc (Zn) importance for crop production, A review, International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(1): 64-68.
NoorGholipoor, F., Bagheri, Y. and Lootfollahi, M. (2008). The Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Wheat Yield and Quality. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 120-129. (In Persian)
Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Production and Processing of Medicinal Plant. Vol.2 ed. 4. Astan Quds Razavi Publication Mashad. (in Persian)
Omidi, H., Naghdibadi, H., Lakzad, A., Torabi, H. and Fotokia, M.H. (2009). The effect of nitroxin biological and chemical fertilizer on quality and Quantity performance of saffron, Journal of Medical Herbs, 1: 92-98.
Pirzad, A. R., Tousi, P. and Darvishzadeh, R. (2013). Effect of Fe and Zn foliar application on plant characteristics and essential oil content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 15(1): 12-23. (in Persian)
Prasad, T. and Sudhakar, P. (2012). Effect of Nano scale zinc oxide particles on the germination, growth and yield of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35: 905–927.
Rahman, M.S., Miyake, H. and Takeoka, Y. (2002). Effects of exogenoces glycinebetaine on growth and ultra structure of salt-stressed rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Prod. Sci. 5: 33-44.
Rasmusson, D.C. (1987). An evaluation of ideotype breeding. Crop Science. 27: 1140-1146.
Rizhsky, L., Liang, H., Shuman, J., Shulaev, V., Davletova, S., and mittler, R. (2004). When defence pathways collide. The response of Arabidopsis to combinations of drought and heat stress. Plant physiology, 134: 1683-1696.
Sadeghzadeh, B. (2013). A review of zinc nutrition and plant breeding. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 13 (4), 905-927.
Saeedi, G.H. (2008). The effect of some macro and microelements on grain yield and other agronomic characters on (Sesamum indicum L.) in Isfahan, Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 45: 379-402.
Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V., and Srivastava, G.C. (2002). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci, 163: 1037-1046.
Salmani Biary, E., Ajamnoruzi, H. and Taheri, Gh. (2011). Physiological response of wheat cultivars to nitrogen source. Journal on Plant Science Researches, Serial 22, 6th, Number 2, pages 67-72.
Samreen, T., Humaira Shah, H.U., Saleem Ullah and Javid, M. (2013). Zinc effect on growth rate, chlorophyll, protein and mineral contents of hydroponically grown Mungbeans plant (Vigna radiata). Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Supplement 2, Pages 1802-1807.

Seddigh, M., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. and Ghasemi, S. (2013). The Effectiveness of Synthesized Zinc-Amino Chelates in Supplying Zinc for Wheat. Journal of Crop Production and Processing Isfahan University of Technology. 3 (9): 177-187.

 Shafea, L., Saffari, M. and Mohammadi Nezhad, G. (2011). Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc fertilizers on leaf Zinc and Chlorophyll contents, grain yield and chemical composition of two maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 27(2): 235-246
Sharma, A.K. (2003). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India. pp 261-265.
Sharma, R., Choudhary, R. and Laljat, B. (2017). Effect of nitrogen and zinc fertilization on growth and productivity of maize. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 13(2): 161-176.
Singh, M.V. (2009). Micronutrient nutritional problems in soils of India and improvement for human and animal health. Indian Journal of fertilisers 5(4), 11–16 (19–28 & 56).
Siripornadulsil S., Traina S., Verma D. P. S. and Sayre R.T. (2002). Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metal in transgenic microalgae. Plant Cell 14, 2837–2847.
Sym, G.J. (1984). Optimization of the in vivo assay condition for Nitrate Reductase in barely (Hordeum vulgar L.cv. Igri), Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 35: 725-730.
Tavan, T., Niakan, M. and Noorinia, A. (2015). The effect of nano-potassium fertilizer on growth factors, photosynthetic system and protein content of wheat plan (Triticum aestivum L.) var. N8019. Journal of Iraninan plant Ecophysiological Research (Plant Sciences Research). 9(53): 61-71.
Vankhadeh, S. (2002). Response of sunflower to applied Zn, Fe, P, N. nes s. zz: 1 – 143 144.
Varisi, V.A., Camargos, L.S., Aguiar, L.F., Christofoleti, R.M., Medici, L.O. and Azevedo, R.A. (2008). Lysine biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): study of enzymes and nitrogen-containing compounds. Plant Physiology Biochemestary 46: 11–18.
Weisany, W., Rahimzadeh, S. and Sohrabi, Y. (2012). Effect of biofertilizers on morphological, physiological characteristic and essential oil content in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 28 (1): 73-87. (in Persian)
Yancey, P.H. (2005). Organic osmolytes as compatible metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. Journal of experimental biology, 208:2819-2830.
Yassen, A., Abou El-Nour, E.A.A. and Shedeed, S. (2010). Response of wheat to foliar spray with urea and micronutrients. Journal of American Science, 9(6): 14-22.
Yosefi, K., Galavi, M., Ramrodi, M. and Mousavi, S.R. (2011). Effect of bio-phosphate and chemical phosphorus fertilizer accompanied with micronutrient foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Single Cross 704), Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(2): 175-180.
Zeid, I.M. (2008). Effect of arginine and urea on polyamines content and growth of bean under salinity stress, Acta Physiology Plant. 8: 201-203.