ویژگی‌های اسانس گیاه دارویی مریم‌گلی سوری (Salvia syriaca L.) تحت تأثیر اقلیم و مراحل فنولوژیکی در مناطق استان چهارمحال‌ و بختیاری

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت و گیاهان دارویی، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

از آنجا که کمیت و کیفیت مواد مؤثره گیاهان دارویی تحت تأثیر عوامل ژنتیکی و محیطی قرار دارد، این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تغییرات اقلیم و مراحل فنولوژیکی بر کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گیاه مریم گلی سوری (Salviasyriaca L.) از تیره  نعناع در بهار سال 1397 انجام گردید تا مناسب‌ترین مرحله رویشی و بهترین منطقه رشد معرفی گردد. طرح آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و به‌صورت طرح فاکتوریل دو عامله مراحل فنولوژیکی (مراحل رشد رویشی، ابتدای رشد زایشی و گلدهی کامل) و مناطق (شهرکرد، کوهرنگ و لردگان) واقع در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری با سه تکرار بود. بعد از آماده‌سازی نمونه‌ها، اسانس‌گیری توسط کلونجر صورت گرفت. اسانس گیاهان مورد نظر پس از آماده‌سازی، جهت شناسایی ترکیبات به دستگاه GC/MS تزریق گردید. نتایج بدست آمده نشان‌دهنده اثر معنی‌دار مراحل فنولوژیکی و مناطق بر ترکیبات اسانس بود. بیشترین ترکیبات مؤثره اسانس در گیاه مریم‌گلی سوری، شامل سیس- توژان (4/31- 9/23 درصد)، کامفور (7/19- 4/16 درصد)، ترانس- توژان (5/11- 8/8 درصد)، 1، 8- سینئول (1/12- 43/8 درصد) بود. در اغلب موارد، ترکیبات عمده اسانس و نیز محتوای اسانس در منطقه کوهرنگ و در مرحله ابتدای رشد زایشی بدست آمد. بیشترین میزان ترکیبات معطر مانند آلفا/بتا-پینن (گروه مونوترپن‌های هیدروکربنه) و کاریوفیلن (سزکوئی­ترپن هیدروکربنه) در اسانس گیاهان مریم‌گلی سوری در مرحله ابتدای رشد زایشی به دست آمد. با تغییر مناطق از سردسیر (کوهرنگ) روبه گرمسیر (لردگان)، میزان ترکیبات معطر موجود در اسانس مانند آلفا- پینن و لیمونن از گروه مونوترپن­های هیدروکربنه کاهش، ولی ترکیبات سزکوئی‌ترپن مانند کاریوفیلن افزایش یافت.  توصیه می‌شود در جهت استحصال مواد معطر بیشتر در این گیاه در مرحله ابتدای رشد زایشی و در مناطق سردسیر اقدام به بهره‌برداری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Properties of essential oil of Salvia syriaca L. under different phenological stages and climatic conditions in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh Bagheri
  • mehrab yadegari
Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Since the quantity and quality of the active ingredients of medicinal plants are dependent on the genetic and environmental factors, this research was carried out in 2018 to investigate the effects of climatic changes and phenological stages on the quantity and quality of essential oils in Salvia syriaca L to introduce the most suitable phenological stage and region. The experimental design was randomized complete design in a factorial layout with 2 factors of phenological stages (vegetative, beginning of flowering, and full flowering stages) and regions (Shahrekord, Kouhrang, and Lordegan) with three replications. The essential oil content was determined by distilling tissues in Clevenger type apparatus. All the essential oil samples were injected into a GC–MS apparatus to determine their components. Results showed a significant effect of phenological stages and regions on the components of essential oils. The highest levels of essential oil compounds included Cis- Thujone (23.9-31.4%), Camphor (16.4-19.7%), Trans- Thujone (8.8-11.5%), and 1, 8-Cineole (8.43-12.1%). The results showed significant effects of phenological stages and regions on essential oil content and composition. The highest contents of essential oil were obtained from Kouhrang region and at beginning of flowering stage. The highest contents of volatile components such as α/β-Pinene (monoterpene hydrocarbons) and Caryophyllene (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) were obtained at the beginning of flowering stage. In addition, the amounts of volatile components and monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α/β-Pinene and Limonene of essential oils decreased from Kouhrang (temperate climate) to Lordegan (tropical climate) while the percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as Caryophyllene in the oils increased. To obtain more aromatic components of this plant, it is recommended to harvest plants in temperate climate and at the beginning of flowering stage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cis- Thujone
  • Medicinal plant
  • Reproductive stage
  • Vegetative stage
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