تأثیر کودهای ورمی‌کمپوست و نیتروژن بر صفات مورفولوژیک، درصد و عملکرد اسانس گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه (Melissa officinalis L.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

10.30495/iper.2021.679516

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای آلی (ورمی­کمپوست) و شیمیایی (نیتروژن) بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی، در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 97-96 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل کود آلی ورمی­کمپوست در چهار سطح صفر، 5/2، 5 و 5/7 تن در هکتار و کودشیمیایی اوره با ٤٦ درصد نیتروژن در چهار سطح شامل صفر، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. نتایج نشان داد که کود ورمی­کمپوست تاثیر معنی­داری بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و درصد اسانس بادرنجبویه داشت، به­طوریکه بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، بیشترین تعداد شاخه فرعی، طول و عرض برگ، وزن تر، وزن خشک و درصد اسانس، در حالت کاربرد 5/7 تن در هکتار ورمی­کمپوست حاصل گردید. همچنین اختلاف معنی­دار بین سطوح مختلف کود شیمیایی اوره مشاهده شد به نحوی که در هنگام استفاده از کود شیمیایی درصد اسانس نسبت به حالت عدم کاربرد این کود به‌طور معنی­داری افزایش یافت. بیش­ترین مقدار اسانس در تیمار کاربرد همزمان ورمی­کمپوست (5/7 تن در هکتار) و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن (100 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به­میزان (49/0 درصد) حاصل گردید که در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد (34/0 درصد) حدود 38 درصد بیشتر بود. به­طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که مصرف ورمی­کمپوست به همراه نیتروژن موجب افزایش رشد اندام هوایی و تولید ماده خشک و در نهایت باعث افزایش عملکرد کمی و بهبود معنی­دار عملکرد اسانس بادرنجبویه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Vermicompost and Nitrogen Fertilizers on Morphological Traits, Percentage and Essential Oil Yield of Melissa Officinalis

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein rezvani 1
  • nastaran hemmati 2
1 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of organic (vermicompost) and chemical (nitrogen) fertilizers on the quantitative and qualitative yield of Melissa Officinalis, a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications in the Research Field of Golestan Research and Training Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Experimental factors included vermicompost at four levels (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 tons ha-1) and urea fertilizer with 46% nitrogen at four levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1). Results showed that vermicompost had a significant effect on morphological characteristics and percentage of essential oil of Melissa Officinalis. The highest plant height, number of branches, leaf length and width, fresh weight, dry weight, and percentage of essential oil was obtained in application of 7.5 ton/ha vermicompost. Also, there was a significant difference between different levels of urea fertilizer so that the percentage of essential oil significantly increased when the fertilizer was applied. The highest amount of essential oil (0.49%) was obtained in simultaneous application of vermicompost (7.5 tons ha-1) and nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg ha-1) which was 38% higher than control. In general, the results showed that application of vermicompost with nitrogen increases shoot growth and dry matter production, ultimately increases the yield quantity, and significantly improves the yield of Melissa Officinalis essential oil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizers
  • Essential oil
  • Lemon Balm
  • Urea fertilizer
  • vermicompost
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