پاسخ فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی جعفری مکزیکی (Tagetes minuta L.) به کاربرد قارچ‌های مایکوریزا در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر قارچ­های مایکوریزا در شرایط تنش شوری بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه جعفری مکزیکی (Tagetes minuta L.) آزمایشی گلدانی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 2 عامل و در 3 تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول کاربرد دو نوع قارچ میکوریزا در سه سطح (عدم تلقیح، Rhizophagus intradices وFunnetiformis mosseae) و فاکتور دوم شوری آب آبیاری در 4 سطح (0، 40، 80 و 120 میلی‌مولار به‌ترتیب معادل 0، 5/3، 7 و 5/10 دسی زیمنس بر متر کلرید سدیم) ­بود. تیمار شوری در گیاهان در مرحله هشت برگی و سه روز در هفته اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد اعمال تنش شوری منجر به کاهش محتوای نسبی آب و کلروفیل برگ شد. با افزایش سظح تنش میزان نشت الکترولیت، کربوهیدرات کل و پرولین برگ افزایش یافت. در مقابل استفاده از قارچ‌های مایکوریزا منجر به بهبود صفات اندازه­گیری شده تحت شرایط تنش شوری گشت. طبق نتایج بدست آمده  مقدار پرولین، کربوهیدرات کل و نشت الکترولیت با کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا در شرایط تنش کاهش یافت که ناشی از تاثیر مثبت کاربرد این قارچ­ها در متعادل کردن شرایط رشدی برای گیاه تحت تنش شوری بود. همچنین بیشترین مقدار محتوای نسبی آب برگ و کلروفیل a، b و کلروفیل کل در تیمار عدم اعمال تنش شوری و کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا گونه اینترارادیکس مشاهده شد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می­توان بیان کرد که اعمال تنش شوری در غلظت 120 میلی­مولار منجر به کاهش شدید صفات مورد بررسی شد. این در حالی است که کاربرد قارچ‌های مایکوریزا در این سطح نتوانست اثرات منفی تنش شوری را بهبود بخشد. استفاده از قارچ مایکوریزا گونه اینترارادیکس نسبت به موسه­آ تاثیر بیشتری در بهبود خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی جعفری مکزیکی در شرایط تنش شوری در غلظت­ پایین داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Physiological and biochemical responses of Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) to mycorrhizal fungi application under salinity stress condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Iraji Mareshk
  • Mohammad Moghaddam
Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of mycorrhizal fungi under salinity stress conditions on physiological and biochemical properties of Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.), a pot factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was the application of two types of mycorrhizal fungi at three levels (non-inoculation, Rhizophagus intradices, and Funnetiformis mosseae) and the second factor was irrigation with salinity water at 4 levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 mM equal to 0, 3.5, 7, and 10.5 ds/m sodium chloride, respectively). The salinity treatment was applied in the plants at the eight-leaf stage and on three days a week. Results showed that application of salinity stress reduced the relative water content and chlorophyll of leaves. With increasing salinity concentration, the amount of electrolyte leakage, total carbohydrate, and proline increased in leafs. In contrast, the use of mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved traits measured under salt stress conditions. The amount of proline, total carbohydrate, and electrolyte leakage decreased with the use of mycorrhizal fungi under stress conditions due to the positive effect of these fungi on balancing growth conditions in the plant under salt stress. Also, the highest amount of relative water content and chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll of leaves were observed under non salinity stress treatment and application of R. intradices. According to the results of this research, it can be concluded that the application of salinity stress at 120 mM resulted in a significant reduction in the studied traits. Besides, the application of mycorrhiza fungi at this level of salinity could not improve the negative effects of salt stress. The use of R. intradices compared to the F. mosseae had a greater effect on the improvement of physiological and biochemical characteristics of Mexican marigold under salinity stress conditions at low salt concentration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Colonization
  • Electrolyte leakage
  • Proline
Abdel-Fattah, G.M., Migaher, F.F. and Ibrahim, A.H. (2002). Interactive effects of endomycorryhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum and phosphorus fertilization on growth and metabolic activities of broad bean plants under drought stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 5: 835-841.
Abdoul-Naser, A. (1998). Effects of inoculation Glomus intraradices and phosphorus fertilization on growth and metabolic activities of broad bean plants under drought stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 5: 835-841.
Aghababai, F. and Raisi, F. (2011). Mycorrhizal symbiosis on chlorophyll, photosyntetise and water use efficiency in four almond genotypes in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 56: 91-101. (In Persian).
Aghayi, K., Tai, N., Kanani, M.R. and Yazdani, M. (2015). Effect of salt stress on some physiological and biochemical parameters of two Salvia species. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 9: 85-96. (In Persian).
Aghhavani Shajari, M., Rezvani moghadam, P., Ghorbani, R. and Nasiri Mahalati, M. (2016). Effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Journal of Horticultural Science. 29(4): 486-500. (In Persian).
Akbari, S., Kordi, S., Fatahi, S. and Ghanbari, F. (2013). Physiological responses of Summer Savory under salinity stress. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science.5: 1702- 1708.
Alam, S.M. (1999). Nutrient uptake by plants under stress conditions. pp. 285-313, In: M. Pessarakli (Ed.), Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. CRC Press. New York.
Amiri, H. and Mazeni, L. (2016). Interaction between salinity and ascorbic acid on some of the biochemical properties of Satureja Khuzestanica Jamzad. Nova Biologica Reperta. 3(11): 69-79.
Amirjani, M.R. (2011). Comparative study of relative tolerance of chlorophyll biosynthesis and ETR of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in response to salt stress. Journal of Cell and Tissue. 2: 57-67. (In Persian).
Augé, R.M. (2004). Arbuscular mycorrhizae and soil/plant water relations. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 84: 373–381.
Auge, R.M. Stodola, A.J.W., Times, J.E. and Saxton A.M. (2001). Moisture retention properties of a mycorrhizal soil. Journal of Plant and Soil. 230: 87-97.
Bahari Saravi, S.H., Pirdashti, H.A. and Yaghoobian, Y. (2018). Response of chlorophyll fluorescence and physiological parameters of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 6(19): 89-104. (In Persian).
Biro, I. and Takacs, T. (2007). Effects of Glomus mossea strain of different origin on plant macro and micro nutrient uptake in Cd polluted and unpolluted soils. Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 55(2): 1-10.
Borde, M., Dudhane, M. and Jite, P.K. (2010). AM fungi influences the photosynthetic activity, growth and antioxidant enzymes in Allium sativum L. under salinity condition. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2(4): 64-71.
Cicek, N. and Cakirlar, H. (2002). The effect of salinity on some physiological parameters in two maize cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology. 28: 66-74.
Cramer, G.R. and Quarrie, S.A. (2002). Corrigendum to: Abscisic acid is correlated with the leaf growth inhibition of four genotypes of maize differing in their response to salinity. Functional Plant Biology. 29(4): 535-535.
Dehghani, A., Kazemeini, S.A., Zarei, M. and Alinia, M. (2017). Effects of salt stress and mycorrhiza fungi on morpho-physiological characteristics of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 7(1): 101-113.
Delavari Parizi, M., Baghizade, A., Enteshari, S.H. and Manochehri Kalantari, KH. (2012). The study of the interactive effects of salicylic acid and salinity stress on induction of oxidative stress and mechanisms of tolerance in Ocimum basilicum L. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 4(12): 25-36. (In Persian).
Doraki, Gh.R., Zamani, Gh.R. and Sayyari, M.H. (2016). Effect of salt stress on physiological traits and antioxidant enzymes activity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Azad). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 14(3): 470-483. (In Persian).
Elhindi, K.M., El-Din, A.S. and Elgorban, A.M. (2016). The impact of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Saudi Journal of Biological Science. 24(1): 170-179.
Emaratpardaz, J., Hami, A. and Ghohari, Gh. (2016). Evaluation of growth characteristics and essential oil yield of Satureja hortensis L. under salinity and Zn foliar spraying. Journal of Agriculture Science and Sustainable Production. 26(3): 131-141.
Esmailpour, B., Jalilvand, P. and Hadian, J. (2013). Effects of drought stress and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some morphophysiological traits and yield of savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Agroecology. 2: 169-177.
Estrada, B., Aroca, R., Barea, J.M. and Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. (2013). Native Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from a saline habitat improved maize antioxidant systems and plant tolerance to salinity. Plant Science. 201: 42-51.
Farhadi, H., Azizi, M. and Nemati, S.H. (2016). Investigation of the effects of salt stress on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of different landraces of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.). Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science. 47(3): 531-541. (In Persian).
Feng, G., Zhang, F.S., Li, X.I., Tian, C.Y., Tang, C. and Rengel, Z. (2002). Improved tolerance of maize plants to salt stress by Arbuscular mycorrhizal is related to higher accumulation of soluble sugars in roots. Mycorrhiza. 12: 185-190.
Ghasemi, M. and Zahedi, M. (2018). Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on the response of some sorghum genotypes to salinity. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 7(24): 121-138. (In Persian).
Gholami, R., Kashefi, B. and Saeidi Sar, S. (2013). Effect salicylic acid on alleviation of salt stress on growth traits of Salvia limbata L. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. (15): 63-73. (In Persian).
Giri, B. and Mukerji, G.K. (2004). Mycorrhiza inoculate alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptica and Sesbania grandiflora under field conditions: Evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza.14: 307-312.
Giri, B., Kapoor, R. and Mukerji, K.G. (2002). VA mycorrhizal techniques/VAM technology in establishment of plants under salinity stress condition. In: Mukerji, K.G., Manoracheir, C., and Singh, J. (eds) Techniques in mycorrhizal studies Kluwer, Dordrecht. Pp. 313-327.
Habibi, S., Meskarbashi, M. and Farzane, M. (2014). Influence of three species of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) on physiological characters of wheat under the salinity conditions. Journal of Plant Production .37(3): 37-52.
Hajibagheri, S., Enteshari, SH. and Razavizadeh, R. (2011). The role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in resistance to basil in comparison to salinity stress. Azad University of Khou Rastegan (Isfahan). 56 P.
Harati, A., Kashefi, B. and Matinizade, M. (2017). Investigation of reducing detrimental effects of salt stress on morphological and physiological traits of (Thymus daenensis Celak.) through salicylic acid application. Plant Production Technology. 16(2): 111-125.
Hazzoumi, Z., Moustakime, Y., Elharchli, E.H. and Joutei, K.A. (2015). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and water stress on growth, phenolic compounds, glandular hairs, and yield of essential oil in basil (Ocimum gratissimum L). Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 2: 1-11.
Heydari Sharif Abadi, H. (2001). Plant and Salinity. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands press. Tehran.
Homai, M. (2002). The reaction of plants to salinity. Publication of Iran National Irrigation and Drainage Committee. Tehran. 97 p.
Hosseini, H., Mosavifard, S., Fatehi, F. and Ghaderi, A. (2017). Changes in phytochemical and morpho-physilogical traits of thyme (Thymus vulgaris CV Varico 3) under different salinity levels. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 16(10): 22-34. (In Persian).
Jahantigh, O., Najafi, F., Naghdi Badi, H., Khavari-Nejad, R.A. and Sanjarian, F. (2016). Study of some physiological parameters hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) in the vegetative stage under the influence of salinity. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 8(27): 81-94. (In Persian).
Jindal, V., Atwal, A., Sekhon, B.S. and Singh, R. (1993). Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on metabolism of moong plants under NaCl salinity. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 3: 475-481.
Kamali, M., Shoor, M. and Salahvarzi, Y. (2012). Studying the effect of salt stress on physio-morphological characteristics of C4 plants Gomphrena globosa L and Amaranthus tricolor under different levels of carbon dioxide. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. MSc. Thesis.
Kashefi, B., Ghods, M. and Moghaddam, M. (2015). Study of salicylic acid application on some morphological and physiological traits in clary sage under salinity stress. Agriculture Crop Management (Journal of Agriculture). 17(2): 431-440. (In Persian).
Kerepesi, I. and Galiba, G. (2000). Osmotic and salt stress induced alternation in solute carbohydrate content in wheat seedlings. Crop Science 40: 482-487.
Khalili Jamal Abad, A. and Khara, J. (2009). The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on some growth and physiological parameters in wheat (cv. Azar2) plants under cadmium toxicity. Iranian Journal of Biology. 21(2): 216-230. (In Persian).
Khalvandi, M., Amerian, M.R., Pirdashti, H., Baradaran Firuzabadi, M. and Gholami, A. (2017). Effects of Piriformospora indica fungi symbiotic on the quantity of essential oil and some physiological parameters of peppermint in saline conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 9(2): 1-20. (In Persian).
Leivite J. (1980). Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Academic Press. Newyork. 55-66.
Lotfelahi, K., Torabi golsefidi, H. and Omidi, H. (2015). Salinity effect on proline, photosynthetic pigments and leaf relative water content in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) in hydroponic condition. Journal of Plant Production Research. 22(1): 89-104. (In Persian).
Lutts, S., Kinet, J.M. and Bouharmont, J. (1995). Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. Journal of Experimental Botany. 46(12): 1843-1852.
Mansour, M.M.F. and Salama, K.H.A. (2004). Cellular basis of salinity tolerance in plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 52: 113-122.
Moghaddam, M. and Talebi, M. (2016). The Effects of salinity and methyl jasmonate on morphological and biochemical characteristics and photosynthetic pigments content in two basil cultivars. Seed and Plant Production. 2-32(1): 81-98. (In Persian).
Munns, R. (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment. 25: 239-250.
Nabati, J., Kafi, M., Nezami, A., Rezvani moghadam, P., Masoomi, A. and Zare Mehrjordy, M. (2014). Effect of salinity stress in different growth stages on some physiological characteristics and antioxidant activity in kochi (Kochia scoparia). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(1): 17-26. (In Persian).
Narimani, R. (2017). The effect of ascorbic acid and humic acid on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. MSc thesis. Ferdowsi university of Mashhad.
Nayyar, H. (2003). Accumulation of osmolytes and osmotic adjustment in water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) as affected by calcium and its antagonists. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 50(3): 253-264.
Ochoa-Velasco, C.E., Valadez-Blanco, R., SalasCoronado, R., Sustaita-Rivera, F., HernándezCarlos, B., García-Ortega, S. and Santos-Sánchez, N.F. (2016). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and Bacillus licheniformis biofertilizer addition on the antioxidants compounds and antioxidant activity of greenhouse cultivated tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Sheva). Scientia Horticulturae. 201: 338-345.
Omidi, A. (2015). Effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) under salt stress conditions. MSc. Thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Pandey, R. and Agarwal, R. (1998). Water stress-induced changes in proline contents and nitrate reductase activity in rice under light and dark conditions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 4: 53-57.
ParsaMotlagh, B., Mahmoodi, S., Sayari Zahan, M.H. and Taghizadeh, M. (2011). Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under salinity stress condition. Agroecology. 3(2): 237-248. (In Persian).
Pazaki, A. and Niki Esfahlan, A. (2016). Influences of ascorbic acid and gibberellin on alleviation of salt stress in summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 9(3): 291-301.
Pessarakli, M. (1999). Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker, London.
Philips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedures for cleaning roots and staining parasitic and vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 55: 158-161.
Piravand, M., Rezainezhad, A.H. and Hosseini, S.Z. (2017). Effects of two mycorrhiza species (Glomus mosseae and G. interaradices) on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens L. under salinity stress. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology. 18(1): 107-120. (In Persian).
Rahmatzadeh, S., Khara, J. and Kazemi Tabar, S.K. (2013).  Effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth improvement and biochemical factors of regenerated Catharanthus roseus L. plants under tryptophan treatment during acclimatization process. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology. 16: 27-40. (In Persian).
Rejali, F., Mardoojhi, B. and Malakooti, M.J. (2010). Effect of mycorrhizal coexistence on water use efficiency, proline accumulation and nutrient uptake, in saline conditions in wheat. Water Research in Agriculture. 24(2): 112-122. (In Persian).
Rezaei- Chiyaneh, E., Jamali, M., Pirzad1, A. and Tofig, S. (2015). Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on some morphophysiological characters and yield of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) in salt stress conditions. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 5(17): 15-29. (In Persian).
Rostami, GH. (2017). Investigation of Fe and Zn fertilizers in two forms of sulfate and nanoparticles on morphological, physiological, biochemical and absorption of iron and zinc in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). MSc. Thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. and Azcon, R. (2000). Symbiotic efficiency and infectivity of an autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomus sp. From saline soil and Glomus deserticola under salinity. Mycorrhizal.10: 137-43.
Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1992). Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. Wiley Eastern Limited.
Sánchez-Blanco, M.J., Ferra´ndez, T., Morales, M.A., Morte, A. and Alarco´n, J.J. (2004). Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161(6):675-82.
Saneoka, H., Moghaieb, R.E., Premachandra, G.S. and Fujita, K. (2004). Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on cell membrane stability and leaf water relations in Agrostis palustris Huds. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 52(2): 131-138.
Sheng, M., Tang, M., Chen, H., Yang, B., Zhang, F. and Huang, Y. (2009). Influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizae on the root system of maize plants under salt stress. Canadian Journal Microbiology. 55: 879–886.
Sinclair, T.R. and Ludlow, M.M. (1985). Who taught plants thermodynamics? The unfulfilled potential of plant water potential. Australian Journal Plant Physiology. 133: 213-217.
Singh, V., Singh, B. and Kaul, V.K. (2003). Domestication of wild marigold (Tagetes minuta) as a potential economic crop in western Himalaya and north Indian plants. Economic Botany, 57(4): 535-544.
Soule, J.A. (1996). Novel annual and perennial Tagetes. Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA, p. 546-551.
Soule, J.A. (1993). Tagetes minuta: A potential new herb from South American. New crops. Wiley, New York. p. 649-654.
Soltani, A. (2008). Water, soil and plant relationship. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. 150 pp.
Tasang, A. and Maum, M.A. (1999). Mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of Strophostyles helvola in coastalforedunes. University of Waterloo, Canada. Plant Ecology. 144: 159–166.
Tatar, O. and Gevrek, M.N. (2008). Influence of water stress on proline accumulation, lipid peroxidation and water content wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences.4: 1-4.
Vatankhah, A., Kalantari, B. and Andalibi, B. (2017). The effect of methyl jasmonate and salt stress on the physiological and phytochemical properties of peppermint (Mentha piperita). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 33(2): 449-456. (In Persian).
Viera Santo, C. (2004). Regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation by salt stress in sunflower leaves. Scientia Horticulturae. 1: 93-99.
Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Shoseyov, O. and Altman, A. (2004). Role of plant heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the abiotic stress response. Trends in Plant Science. 9(5): 244-252.
Wu, Q.S., Xia, R.X. and Zou, Y.N. (2007). Osmotic solute responses of mycorrhizal citrus (Poncirus trifoliata) seedling to drought stress. Plant Physiology. 29: 543-549.
Zou, Y.N. and Wu, Q.S. (2011). Efficiencies of five Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress of trifoliate orange. International Journal of Agriculture Biology. 13: 991–995.