اتنوفارماکولوژی، کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گل و برگ گیاه دارویی چای‌کوهی (Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl.) در رویشگاه‌های استان‌های سمنان، خراسان شمالی و رضوی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده تولیدات گیاهی، علوم کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی دانشگاه گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه کشاورزی، واحد دامغان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، دامغان، ایران

چکیده

چای­کوهی یکی از گیاهان دارویی می‌باشد که در مناطق مختلف ایران رویش دارد. از دم­کرده گل­ها و برگ‌های این گیاه در ناراحتی‌های معده و نیز به‌عنوان آرام­بخش در رفع بی‌خوابی و اضطراب استفاده می­گردد. به‌منظور بررسی اسانس گل و برگ این گیاه در چهار رویشگاه (ارتفاعات مشهد، نیشابور، قوچان و شاهرود)، تحقیقی بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار صورت پذیرفت. اطلاعات اتنوفارماکولوژی از مردم محلی بدست آمده و نمونه­های گیاهی در بهار 1393 در زمان گلدهی، از رویشگاه­های مذکور جمع‌آوری گردید. نمونه­های گل و برگ خشک‌ به­وسیله دستگاه کلونجر و تقطیر با آب، اسانس‌گیری و درصد و عملکرد اسانس هر نمونه تعیین و ترکیبات متشکله اسانس‌های حاصله توسط دستگاه GC/MS آنالیز شد. نتایج اتنوفارماکولوژی نشان داد نام‌های محلی آن در رویشگاه‌ها متفاوت است ولی کاربرد عمومی به‌عنوان آرام‌بخش می‌باشد. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین عملکرد، درصد اسانس و وزن خشک مربوط به نمونه برگ در مشهد و وزن خشک گل نیز بیشتر از وزن خشک برگ بود. بیشترین ترکیب در اسانس گل با 72 ترکیب مربوط به نیشابور و در اسانس برگ با 82 ترکیب مربوط به رویشگاه قوچان بود که در بالاترین مقادیر به‌ترتیب 692/92 و 818/96 وزن اسانس را به خود اختصاص داده بودند. بیشترین میزان ترکیبات اصلی اسانس اعم از بتا-پینن ، بتافلاندرن، کاریوفیلن مربوط به اکوتیپ شاهرود و اسپاتولنول و آلفاتوجن به‌ترتیب مربوط به قوچان و مشهد بود که میزان این ترکیبات در برگ بیشتر از گل می‌باشد که بهترین  کیفیت اسانس را می‌توان از رویشگاه‌های مشهد و قوچان بدست آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ethnopharmacology, quantity, and quality of flower and leaf of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. in four habitats in Semnan, Khorasan Razavi, and North Khorasan provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedighe Chorli 1
  • Sara Khorasani neghad 1
  • khodayar hemmati 1
  • Bahare Kashefi 2
1 Department of Horticulture Sciences, Faculty of Plant Production, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran.
2 Department of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Stachys lavandulifolia is a medicinal plant growing in different parts of Iran. Its flower and leaf infusions are used for treating diseases related to stomach and also as sedative for insomnia and stress. This research was carried out based on a completely randomized design with three replications to investigate the essential oil contents of leaf and flower obtained from four different sites (Shahrud, Ghuchan, Nyshabur, and Mashhad). Ethnopharmacological data were obtained from local people and the plant samples were collected from their habitas during flowering stage in spring 2014. Essential oils of the sample leaves and flowers were distilled using a Clevenger apparatus to determine essential oil percent and yield in each site. Furthermore, the essential oil components were determined with a GC/MS tool. Results of ethnopharmacological study showed that this plant has different local names in the sites under study but its general application was for reducing stress. The highest essential oil yield and percent and also dry weight were obtained from Mashhad. Also, the highest numbers of essential oil components of Stachys lavandulifolia flower (n=72) and leaf (n=82) were extracted from Nyshabur and Ghuchan, respectively with a maximum essential oil weights of 92.692 and 96.818, respectively. The highest values of major components including betapinene, betaphellandrane, and caryophyllene were obtained from Shahroud and the highest values of spathulenol and alfathujene were obtained from Ghuchan and Mashhad, respectively and these components were higher in leaves than in flowers. The highest quality of the essential oils was obtained from plants grown in Mashhad and Ghuchan habitats.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Betapinene
  • Clevenjer
  • Culture pattern
  • Essential oils
  • GC/MS
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