ارزیابی عملکرد کمی و کیفی ارقام مختلف داخلی و خارجی چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران.

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح‌نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد، مهاباد، ایران.

3 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی 18 رقم مختلف داخلی و خارجی چغندرقند به لحاظ برخی صفات مهم کمّی و کیفی تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و محدود در سال زراعی 1396 به­صورت طرح کرت­های خرد شده نواری (شرایط نرمال و تنش در کرت­های اصلی و رقم در کرت­های فرعی) در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با شش تکرار انجام گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده­ها نشان داد که اثر متقابل رقم × محیط برای صفات عملکرد قند خالص و ناخالص، ضریب قلیاییت و میزان قند ملاس (05/0≥p < /em>) و میزان پتاسیم ریشه (01/0≥p < /em>) معنی­دار و بر سایر صفات اثری نداشت. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس ساده در شرایط نرمال، اثر رقم بر صفت میزان نیتروژن مضره ریشه، غیرمعنی­دار بر سایر صفات مورد ارزیابی، معنی­دار بود. همچنین اثر رقم در شرایط تنش بر کلیه صفات مورد ارزیابی در سطح احتمال یک درصد (01/0≥p < /em>) معنی­دار بود. از نظر صفت عملکرد ریشه تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش، ارقام خارجی مراک و دورتی به ترتیب با عملکرد 5/86 و 4/70 تن در هکتار دارای بالاترین ارزش بوده و رقم داخلی شریف به ترتیب با 3/14 و 2/17 تن در هکتار دارای کمترین عملکرد ریشه بودند. متوسط صفت درصد قند ناخالص تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش به‌ترتیب 88/19 و 15/20 درصد محاسبه گردید که اگرچه اختلاف آن­ها به لحاظ آماری معنی­دار نبود، ولی مقدار افزایش درصد قند ناخالص (حدود 34/1 درصد) تحت شرایط تنش انتظار می­رفت. با توجه به اینکه اثرات کاهشی و افزایشی تنش کم آبیاری بر اکثر صفات اندازه­گیره شده معنی­دار نبود، می­توان دریافت که محصول چغندرقند دارای آستانه تحمل مناسبی برای کم آبی می­باشد که یقیناَ چنین نتایجی برای استفاده توسط زارعین چغندرکار در استان چغندرخیز آذربایجان غربی و مخصوصاَ در شرایط کنونی که با خشک شدن دریاچه ارومیه سعی بر احیای آن است، همواره بایستی مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The assessment of quantitative and qualitative yield of different native and foreign sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars under optimal and limited irrigation conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • heydar azizi 1
  • Esmail Nabizadeh 2
  • Azad Ebrahimi 2
  • Rahim Mohammadian 3
1 Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Mahabad, Iran
3 Sugar Beet Research Department, West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to evaluate 18 different native and foreign sugar beet cultivars in terms of some important quantitative and qualitative traits under optimal and limited irrigation conditions in 2017 crop season in as a strip split plot design (normal and stress conditions) as main plots and cultivar factor as sub plots based on RCB design with six replications. The results of combined ANOVA of the obtained data showed that the interaction effect of the environment × cultivar was significant on sugar yield, white sugar yield, alkalinity coefficient, molasses sugar (p≤0.05), and root potassium content (p≤0.01) traits while it had no effect on other traits. Based on the obtained results from ANOVA, the effect of cultivar was not significant on α-amino nitrogen trait while it was significant on other assessed traits under normal condition. Also, under stress condition, the cultivar effect was significant at p≤0.01 on all of the assessed traits. In terms of root yield trait, Merak and Dorthea foreign cultivars had the highest value with 86.5 and 70.4 t ha-1 and Sharif native cultivar had the lowest value with 14.3 and 17.2 t ha-1 under normal and stress conditions, respectively. Under normal and stress conditions, the mean sugar contents were calculated 19.88 and 20.15%, respectively. Although the difference was not significant, the increase in sugar content (about 1.34%) under stress condition was as expected. Given that the decreasing and increasing effects of water deficit stress on most measured traits were not significant, it can be found that sugar beet crop has a good tolerance threshold for water deficit and, surely the finding should always be considered by beet farmers in West Azarbaijan province, especially in the current situation in which there are attempts to revive the drying Urmia lake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sugar beet
  • Tolerant to water deficit stress
  • water requirement
  • Yield
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