اثر بستر کشت بر رشد و تحمل به شوری درخت باران طلایی (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، یزد، ایران.

2 مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران.

چکیده

درخت باران طلایی (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) گیاهی چوبی، چندساله و زینتی است که عمدتا در فضای سبز کشت می­شود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی میزان مقاومت این گیاه به شوری و اثر کود گاوی و ورمی‌کمپوست بر میزان رشد و افزایش تحمل به شوری نهال‌های دوساله باران طلایی بود. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی شامل سه بستر کشت مختلف (1-خاک زراعی 2-80% خاک زراعی+20% ورمی‌کمپوست، 3-80% خاک زراعی+ 20% کود گاوی) و شوری آب آبیاری در سه سطح ( 1، 4 و 7 دسی­زیمنس بر متر)، هر کدام با سه تکرار درون گلخانه انجام شد. در این آزمایش بستر بدون کود به­عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. طول دوره اعمال تنش سه ماه بود. نتایج به­دست آمده نشان دادکه با افزایش سطح شوری، تعداد شاخه، وزن ­تر و خشک ریشه، اندام هوایی و کل گیاه به­طور معنی­داری کاهش و میزان فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز و جذب سدیم و کلر افزایش یافت. تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست بهتر از شاهد و کود گاوی منجر به افزایش وزن ­تر و خشک ریشه، اندام هوایی و کل گیاه، فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز، جذب سدیم، پتاسیم و کلر برگ شد. بیشترین وزن تر و خشک، ریشه، اندام هوایی و کل گیاه، جذب سدیم، پتاسیم و کلر در سطح شوری 4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر و تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست حاصل شد. به­طور کلی استفاده از ورمی‌کمپوست بهتر از کود گاوی منجر به بهبود خصوصیات رشدی و افزایش مقاومت به شوری گیاه باران طلایی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of culture medium on growth and salt tolerance of goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Dashti 1
  • Maryam Dehestani-Ardakani 1
  • Mostafa Shirmardi 1
  • Ali Momenpour 2
1 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran.
2 National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Irann
چکیده [English]

Goldenrain-tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) is a woody perennial ornamental tree, mainly used for landscape purposes. The aim of this study was investigation salt tolerance of this plant and the effect of cow manure and vermicompost on plant growth and increasing the salt tolerance of two-year plants. In a factorial experiment and completely randomized design (CRD), three levels of organic amendments (soil, 80% v/v soil + 20% v/v vermicompost, and 80% v/v soil + 20% v/v cow manure) and three levels of salinity (1, 4, and 7 dS.m-1) with three replications per treatments in greenhouse were applied. In this experiment, media without organic amendment was were considered as control and stress duration was three months. Results showed that increasing soil salinity levels progressively decreased the number of shoots and fresh and dry weights of roots, shoots, and whole plant while it increased activity of peroxidase and sodium and chloride uptake. Vermicompost treatment increased fresh and dry weights of shoots, roots, and whole plant, peroxidase, sodium, potassium, and chloride uptake more than control and cow manure. The highest fresh and dry weights of shoots, roots, and whole plant as well as sodium potassium and chloride uptake were obtained in salinity level of 4 ds/m and under vermicompost treatment. Generally, application of vermicompost increased growth characteristics and salt tolerance of goldenrain tree better than cow manure.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cow manure
  • Goldenrain
  • growth
  • Salt stress
  • vermicompost
Abou El-Magd, M.M., Zaki, M.F. and Abou-Hussein, S.D. (2008). Effect of organic manure and different levels of saline irrigation water on growth, green yield and chemical content of sweet fennel. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2: 90-98.
Acosta-Motos, J.R., Díaz-Vivancos, P., Álvarez, S., Fernández-García, N., Sánchez-Blanco, M.J. and Hernández, J.A. (2015). NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical adaptative mechanism in the ornamental Myrtus cummunis L. plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 183: 41–51.
Acosta-Motos, J.R., Hernández, J.A., Álvarez, S., Barba-Espín, G. and Sánchez-Blanco, M.J. (2017). Long-term resistance mechanisms and irrigation critical threshold showed by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water and relief capacity. Plant Physiology Biochemistry. 111: 244–256.
Acosta-Motos, J.R., Ortuño, M.F., Álvarez, S., López-Climent, M.F., Gómez-Cadenas, A. and Sánchez-Blanco, M.J. (2016). Changes in growth, physiological parameters and the hormonal status of Myrtus communis L. plants irrigated with water with different chemical compositions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 191: 12–21.
Ahmad, M.S.A., Javed, F., Javed, S. and Alvi, A.K. (2009). Relationship between callus growth and mineral nutrients uptake in salt-stressed Indica rice callus. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 32: 382-394.
Alam, Md.Z., Kumar Das, D., HashemMd. A. and Hoque, Md.A. (2016). Soil amendment with farm yard manure and poultry manure confer tolerance to salt stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Research in Agricalture, Livestock and Fisheries. 3(3): 379-386.
Aremu, A.O., Masondo, N.A. and Staden, J.V. (2014). Physiological and phytochemical responses of three nutrient-stressed bulbous plants subjected to vermicompost leachate treatment. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 36(3):721–731. doi:10.1007/s11738-013-1450-3            
Ashraf, M. and Harris, P.J.C. (2013). Photosynthesis under stressful environments: An overview. Photosynthetica. 51: 163–190.
Atiyeh, R., Subler, S., Edwards, C., Bachman, G., Metzger J. and Shuster W. (2000). Effects of vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticultural container media and soil. Pedobiologia. 44: 579-590.
Bharti, N., Barnawal, D., Wasnik, K., Krishna Tewari, S. and Kalra, A. (2016). Co-inoculation of Dietzia natronolimnaea and Glomus intraradices with vermicompost positively influences Ocimum basilicum growth and resident microbial community structure in salt affected low fertility soils. Applied Soil Ecology. 100: 211-225.
Bidabadi Shirani, S., Dehghanipoodeh, S. and Wright, G.C. (2017). Vermicompost leachate reduces some negative effects of salt stress in pomegranate. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture. 6 (3): 2251-7715
Blum, A. and Ebercon, A. (1981). Cell membrane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Science. 21(1): 43-47.
Chamani, E., Joyce D.C. and Reihanytabar, A. (2008). Vermicompost effects on the growth and flowering of Petunia hybrida ‘Dream Neon Rose’. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 3(3): 506-512.
Chen, W., Yao, X., Cai, K. and Chen, J. (2011). Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption. Biological trace element research. 142: 67-76.
Chinsamy, M, Kulkarni, M.G. and Staden, J.V. (2013). Garden-wastevermicompost leachate alleviates salinity stress in tomato seedlings by mobilizing salt tolerance mechanisms. Plant Growth Regulators. 71:41–47.
Daneshian, J., Rahmani, N. and Alimohammadi, M. (2012). 'Effects of application nitrogen and fertilizer manure on physiological characteristics of Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) under water deficit stress', New Finding in Agriculture. 6 (4): 231-240.
Das, D.K., Dey, B.R., Mian, M.J.A. and Hoque, M.A. (2013). Mitigation of the adverse effects of salt stress on maize (Zea mays L.) through organic amendments. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 1: 233-239.
Dirr, M.A. (1990). Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identi®cation, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation and Uses, 4th Edition. Stiples Publishing, Illinois, pp. 457±459.
Emami, Y. and Zavareh, M. (2005). Drought tolerance in higher plants. Nashre daneshgahi Press, Tehran, First Edition, 187p (In Persian).
Ezhilmathi, K., Singh, V.P., Arora. A. and Sairam, R.K. (2007). Effect of 5-sulfosalicylic acid on antioxidant activity in relation to vase of Gladiolus cut flowers. Plant Growth Regulators. 51: 99-108.
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Stuebing, K., Fletcher, J. M., Hamlett, C. L. andLambert, W. (2008). Problem solving and computational skill: Are they shared or distinct aspects of mathematical cognition? Journal of Educational Psychology. 100: 30–47.
Garcial, A.C., Berbara, R.L.L., Farias, L.P., Izquierdo, F.G., Hemandez, O.L., Campos, R.H. and Castro, R.N. (2012). Humic acids of vermicompost as an ecological pathway to increase resistance of rice seedlings to water stress. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11(13): 3125–3134.
Hasanpour, Z., Karimi, H.R. and Mirdehghan, S.H. (2014). Effects of salinity and water stress on echophysiological parameters and micronutrients concentration of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition. 38(5):795–807
Hosseinzadeh, S.R., Amiri, H. and Ismaili, A. (2018). Evaluation of photosynthesis, physiological, and biochemical responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Pirouz) under water deficit stress and use of vermicompost fertilizer, Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 17(11): 2426-2437.
Hussain, K., Majeed, A., Nawaz, K., Khizar, H.B. and Nisar, M.F. (2009). Effect of different levels of salinity on growth and ion contents of black seeds (Nigella sativa L.). Current Research Journal of Biological Science. 1: 135–138.
Idrees, S., Qureshi, M.S., Ashraf, M.Y., Hussain, M. and Naveed, N.H. (2004). Influence of sulphate of potash (SOP) and farmyard manure (FYM) on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) grown under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. 2: 65-69.
Irshad, M., Eneji, A.E., Khattak, R.A. and Khan. A. (2009). Influence of nitrogen and saline water on the growth and partitioning of mineral content in maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 32: 458-469.
Kalhor, M., Dehestani-Ardakani, M., Shirmardi, M., Gholamnejad, J. (2018). 'Response of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) to interaction effects of salt stress and organic soil amendments', Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 11 (5): 1005-1021.
Kamil Abass AlTaey, D. (2017). Alleviation of Salinity Effects by Poultry Manure and Gibberellin Application on growth and Peroxidase activity in pepper. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 2 (4): 1851-1862.
Kaya, C., Higgs, D. and Sakar. E. (2002). Response of two leafy vegetables grown at high salinity to supplementary potassium and phosphorus during different growth stages. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 25: 2663-2676.
Kumar, N., Singh, S.K. and Pandey, H.K. (2018). Applied Geomathematic. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s12518-018-0218-2.
Kumari, M.S.S. and Ushakumari, K. (2002). Effect of vermicompost enriched rock phosphate on the yield and uptake of nutrients in cowpea (Vigna unguinculata L. Walp). Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 40: 27-30.
Lazcano, C. and Dominguez, J. (2010). Effects of vermicompost as a potting amendment of two commercially-grown ornamental plant species. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(4):1260–1270.
Leithy, S., Gaballah, M.S. and Gomaa, AM. (2010). Associative impact of bio- and organic fertilizers on geranium plants grown under saline conditions. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 9: 617-626.
Maie Mohsen, M.A., Abo- Kora, H.A. and Abeer Kassem, H.M. (2016). Effect of vermicompost and calcium silicate to reduce the soil salinity on growth and oil determinations of Marjoram plant. International Journal of Chemtech Research. 9(5):235–262
Mousavi Dehmordy, Z., Gholami, M. and Baninasab, B. (2018). Effect of Vermicompost Fertilizer on Growth and Drought Tolerance of Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Zard). Journal of Plant Process and Function. 7 (23):1-18.
Munns, R., Wallace, P.A., Teakle, N.L. and Colmer, T.D. (2010). Measuring soluble ion concentrations (Na+, K+, Cl−) in salt-treated plants. pp: 371-382. In: Sunkar, R. (Ed.). Plant Stress Tolerance, Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Springer, 386 p.
Munns, R. and Gilliham, M. (2015). Salinity tolerance of crops—What is the cost? New Phytologist. 208: 668–673.
Niazi, B.H., Badr-uz-Zaman, J.R. and Salim, M. (2002). Improvement of saline soil productivity through farm yard manure amendment and coated seeds for Fodderbeet cultivation. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2: 82-84.
Pant, A.P., Radovich, T.J.K., Hue, N.V., Talcott, S.T. and Krenek, K.A. (2009). Vermicompost extracts influence growth, mineral nutrients, phytonutrients and antioxidant activity in pak choi (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai, Chinensis group) grown under vermicompost and chemical fertiliser. Journal of Science Food Agriculture. 89(14): 2383-2392.
Pérez-Gómez, J.D.J., Abud-Archila, M., Juan Villalobos- Maldonado, J., Enciso-Saenz, S., Hernández de León, H., Manuel Ruiz-Valdiviezo, V. and Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli, F. (2017). Vermicompost and Vermiwash Minimized the Influence of Salinity Stress on Growth Parameters in Potato Plants, Compost Science & Utilization. 1-7.
Pritam, S.V.K. and Garg, C.P.K. (2010). Growth and yield response of marigold to potting media containing vermicompost produced from different wastes. The Environmentalist. 30(2): 123–130.
Raafat, N.Z. and Tharwat, E.E.R. (2011). Improving wheat grain yield and its quality under salinity conditions at a newly reclaimed soil using different organic sources as soil or foliar applications. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 7: 42-55.
Ramesh, P., Panwar, N.R. and Singh, A.S. (2009). Impact of organic manure combinations on the productivity and soil qualityin different cropping systems in central India. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 172: 577-585.
Reuveni, M., Agapov, V. and Reuveni, R. (1995). Induced systematic protection to powdery mildew in cucumber by phosphate and potassium fertilizers: effect of inoculum concentration and post-inoculation treatment. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 17: 245-251.
Reyes-Perez, J. J., Murillo-Amador, B., Nieto-Garibay, A., Troyo-Dieguez, E., Reynaldo-Escobar, I.M., Rueda- Puente, E.O. and Guridi-Izquierdo, F. (2014). Humates of vermicompost as mitigator of salinity in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. 46:149–62.
Shao, H.B., Chu, L.Y., Jaleel, C.A. and Zhao, C.X. (2008). Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331: 215-225.
Sharma, K. and Garg, V.K. (2018). Chapter 17 - Solid-State Fermentation for Vermicomposting: A Step Toward Sustainable and Healthy Soil, Editor(s): Ashok Pandey, Christian Larroche, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Elsevier, Pages 373-413,
Sharp, R.E., Poroyko, V., Hejlek, L.G., Spollen, W.G., Springer, G.K., Bohnert, H.J. and Nguyen, H.T. (2004). Root growth maintenance during water deficits: physiology to functional genomics. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55: 2343-2351.
Silispour, M., Golchin, A. and Rouzban, M. (2016). 'Evaluation of salt tolerance in two olive rootstocks based on growth characteristics and mathematical analysis of their regression equation with salinity', Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 6(2): 83-100
Tang, X., Mu, X., Shao, H., Wang, H., Brestic, M. (2015). Global plant-responding mechanisms to salt stress: Physiological and molecular levels and implications in biotechnology. Critical Review Biotechnology. 35: 425–437.
Tisdale, J.M. and Oades J.M. (1982). Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soil. Journal of Soil Science. 33:141-150.
Zaki, M.F., Ahmed, A.A., Singer, S.M. and El-Magd, M.M.A. (2009). Reducing the adverse effect of irrigation water salinity on the vegetative growth, green yield and quality of sweet fennel plants by organic manure. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 3: 4449-4464.
Zhu, L., Wang, P., Zhang, W., Hui, F. and Xiangxiang C. (2017) Effects of selenium application on nutrient uptake and nutritional quality of Codonopsis lanceolata. Scientia Horticulturae. 225: 574–580.