تأثیر هورمون جیبرلین بر عملکرد، شاخص‌های رشدی و صفات بیوشیمیایی ذرت (Zea mays L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد آیت‌اله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

3 گروه آگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر هورمون جیبرلین و تنش خشکی بر ذرت آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارتند از سطوح تنش رطوبتی در سه سطح آبیاری نرمال (60I0=)، تنش متوسط (90I1=) و تنش شدید (120I2=) میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و فاکتور فرعی شامل محلول‌پاشی هورمون جیبرلین در چهار سطح عدم مصرف (0G0=)، (ppm15G1=)، (ppm20G2=) و (ppm25G3=) می‌باشد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه به ترتیب در تیمار 60 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به همراه مصرف 20 پی پی ام جیبرلیک اسید و 120 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر بدون مصرف جیبرلیک اسید به میزان 2/9658 و 3/5797 کیلوگرم در هکتار مشاهده شد. همچنین در تمامی سطوح تنش مصرف جیبرلیک اسید موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه ذرت شد. اثر متقابل هورمون و آبیاری تأثیر معنی‌داری بر نشاسته، پرولین، آلفا آمیلاز، بتاآمیلاز، پروتئاز دارد. با اعمال تنش خشکی غلظت پرولین در برگ ذرت افزایش یافت. هورمون جیبرلین در شرایط عدم تنش خشکی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر غلظت پرولین برگ ذرت نداشت اما در شرایط تنش خشکی باعث افزایش غلظت پرولین گردید. کاربرد 20 و 25 پی پی ام جیبرلین در شرایط تنش کم آبی متوسط (90 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) غلظت پرولین برگ در مقایسه با شاهد (عدم مصرف جیبرلین) به ترتیب به میزان 36 و 50 درصد افزایش داد. در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید (120 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) غلظت پرولین با کاربرد 20 و 25 پی پی ام جیبرلین به ترتیب 32 و 21 درصد بیشتر از عدم مصرف جیبرلین بود. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که اسید جیبرلیک از طریق تأثیر مثبت بر افزایش و بهبود اجزاء عملکرد در نهایت می­تواند عملکرد دانه ذرت را افزایش دهد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of gibberellin hormone on yield, growth indices, and biochemical traits of corn (Zea Mays L.) under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Maleki 1
  • Amin Fathi 2
  • Sadegh Bahamin 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, slamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Iran
3 Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of gibberellin hormone and drought stress on corn, an experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included moisture stress at three levels of normal irrigation (I0=60), medium stress (I1=90), and severe stress (I2=120) mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan as main factor and a sub factor of gibberellin hormone spraying at four levels non-consumption (G0=0), (G1=15ppm), (G2=20ppm), and (G3=25ppm). Results showed that the highest and lowest grain yields were observed in 60 mm evaporation from evaporation pan with 20 ppm gibberellin acid and 120 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan without using gibberellin acid as 9658.2 and 5797.3 kg/h, respectively. Also, under all levels of drought stress, gibberellin acid application increased grain yield of corn. The interaction of hormones and irrigation had a significant effect on starch, proline, alpha amylase, beta amylase, and protease. Drought stress increased proline concentration in corn leaf. Gibberellin hormone had no significant effect on proline concentration in corn leaf under drought stress conditions, but under prolonged drought stress, proline concentration increased. The application of 20 and 25 ppm gibberellin under moderate dehydration (90 mm evaporation from evaporation pan) increased leaf proline concentrations by 36% and 50%, respectively, compared with control treatment (no gibberellin consumption). Under severe drought stress conditions (120 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan), proline concentrations with 20 and 25 ppm gibberellin were 32% and 21% higher than gibberellin consumption, respectively. Overall, the results showed that gibberellin acid, through positive effects on increasing and improving the yield components, can ultimately increase corn grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amylase
  • dry matter
  • Proline
  • Protease
  • Drought stress
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