ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی در اینبرد لاین‌ها و ارقام مصنوعی آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) در اقلیم معتدل کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

چکیده

               در این پژوهش اثر تنش خشکی بر برخی ویژگی‎های آگروفیزیولوژیک 15 ژنوتیپ آفتابگردان شامل سه رقم شاهد، هشت لاین اینبرد و چهار رقم مصنوعی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی معاونت مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم (سرارود، کرمانشاه) در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی، در سه تکرار و دو محیط (بدون تنش و تنش خشکی) طی سال زراعی 93-1392 بررسی شد. میانگین عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ‏ها در شرایط بدون تنش 715 و در شرایط تنش 579 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد که نشان‎دهنده کاهش 02/19 درصدی در اثر تنش خشکی می‎باشد. رقم شاهد Zaria و لاین Sil-292 با بیش از 30 درصد، بیشترین درصد کاهش عملکرد را داشتند. ارقام مصنوعی Sil-94، Sil-54 و Sil-96 با کمتر از 5 درصد، کمترین درصد کاهش را به خود اختصاص دادند. دامنه میزان روغن دانه در شرایط بدون تنش از 5/45 تا 7/51 درصد و در شرایط تنش خشکی از 4/35 تا 9/49 درصد متغیر بود. تنش خشکی سبب کاهش حدود 10 درصدی روغن دانه ژنوتیپ‏ها گردید. در مجموع، اعمال تنش خشکی منجر به زودگلدهی و زودرس شدن، ‌کاهش صفات زراعی و مورفولوژیک و محتوای روغن دانه و افزایش نشت یونی و میزان آب نسبی از دست رفته برگ‌ها گردید. با استفاده از روش مجموع رتبه و بررسی پارامترهای آن، ژنوتیپ‎های SIL-54، SIL-42، SIL-140 و SIL-237 به‎عنوان متحمل‎ترین ژنوتیپ‎ها شناخته شدند. این ژنوتیپ‎ها بر اساس دیاگرام بای‎پلات نیز به‏عنوان برترین ژنوتیپ‎ها تحت هر دو شرایط معرفی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation drought tolerance of sunflower inbred lines and synthetic cultivars at temperate climate of Kermanshah

نویسنده [English]

  • SEYED MEHDI SAFAVI
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

At this study, the effect of drought stress on some agro-physiological characteristics of 15 sunflower genotypes including three check cultivars, eight inbred lines and four synthetic cultivars was evaluated using Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replicates under non-stress and drought stress conditions at Dryland Agricultural Research Sub-Institute (Sararood Station), AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran during 2013-2014 cropping year. The mean kernel yield of genotypes was 715 and 597 kg/ha under non-stress and stress conditions, respectively which shows a 19.02% reduction due to drought stress. Check cultivar “Zaria” and line “Sil-292” had the highest percentage of yield loss with more than 30%. Synthetic cultivars “Sil-94”, “Sil-54” and “Sil-96” had the lowest percentage of reduction with less than 5%. Kernel oil content ranged from 45.5 to 51.7% in non-stress conditions and from 35.4 to 49.9% in drought stress conditions. Drought stress caused about 10% decrease in kernel oil of the genotypes. Overall, drought stress caused early flowering, reduced agronomic and morphological traits and kernel oil content and increased relative electrolyte leakage and leaf relative water loss. Genotypes “SIL-54”, “SIL-42”, “SIL-140” and “SIL-237” were recognized as the most tolerant genotypes using ranking method and its parameters. These genotypes were identified as the best genotypes based on the biplot diagrams under the both conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biplot
  • Oil content
  • Drought tolerance Indices
  • Head diameter
  • Electrolyte leakage
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