ارزیابی برخی شاخص‌های کمی و کیفی ارقام محلی برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در نظام‌های کاشت شالیزاری در شمال ایران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

2 پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، پژوهشگر پسادکتری، کرج، ایران.

3 استاد پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف ارزیابی نظام‌های کاشت ارقام محلی برنج در مزرعه‌های پژوهشی واقع در شهرستان‌های نکا، ساری و بابل طی سال‌های 1396 و 1397 اجرا شد. آنالیز داده‌ها بر اساس آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو عامل انجام شد که در آن نظام‌های کاشت پرنهاده، رایج منطقه، در حال گذار به ارگانیک، ارگانیک و کم‌نهاده به‌عنوان عامل اول و ارقام سنگ طارم، طارم محلی و طارم هاشمی برنج به‌عنوان عامل دوم بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین میانگین تعداد خوشه برنج در متر مربع در هر دو سال متعلق به نظام کاشت پرنهاده بود. بالاترین شاخص خوابیدگی میانگره چهارم در تیمار نظام کاشت پرنهاده و رایج برای رقم سنگ طارم حاصل گردید. بیشترین عملکرد شلتوک در هر دو سال در نظام‌های کاشت پرنهاده و رایج تولید شد. حداکثر میزان جذب فسفر دانه، شاخص برداشت نیتروژن، شاخص برداشت پتاسیم و قوام ژل در نظام‌های کاشت پرنهاده و رایج بدست آمد. بیشترین کارایی تبدیل دانه در سال اول متعلق به نظام کاشت رایج (83/72 درصد) و در سال دوم متعلق به نظام کاشت در حال گذار به ارگانیک (75 درصد) بود. مقدار دمای ژلاتینه شدن دانه‌های برنج در هر دو سال در نظام کاشت رایج حداکثر و در نظام‌های کاشت کم‌نهاده و ارگانیک حداقل بود. با توجه به یافته‌ها، می‌توان بیان کرد نظام‌های کاشت پرنهاده و رایج منجر به افزایش عملکرد کمی و نظام‌های کاشت در حال گذار و ارگانیک منجر به افزایش جذب عناصر و بهبود صفات مرتبط با پخت دانه ارقام برنج شدند که رقم سنگ طارم نسبت به دو رقم دیگر برتر بود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating some qualitative and quantitative indices of local rice cultivars in paddy field planting systems in north of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Moeini 1
  • MOHAMMAD REZA DADASHI 1
  • Salman Dastan 2
  • Abolfazl Faraji 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Genetic Engineering and Biosafety, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted with the aim of evaluating the planting systems of local rice cultivars in the research paddy fields located in Neka, Sari and Babol during 2017 and 2018. Data analysis was done based on a factorial experiment in a complete randomized blocks design where planting systems including conventional, high-input, transition to organic, organic, and low-input were chosen as the first factor and cultivars including ‘Sang Tarom’, ‘Tarom Mahalli’, and ‘Tarom Hashemi’ served as the second factor. Results demonstrated that the highest mean number of panicle per m2 in both years belonged to the high-input system. The highest fourth internode lodging index was obtained at interaction of high-input and conventional system with ‘Sang Tarom’. The maximum paddy yield in both years was produced in high-input and conventional systems. The highest grain phosphorous uptake, nitrogen harvest index, potassium harvest index, and gel consistency were achieved in high-input and conventional systems. The highest grain milling efficiency in the first year belonged to the conventional system (72.83%), but in the second year, it belonged to the transition to organic system (75%). Gelatinization temperature in both years was maximum in the conventional system while it was minimum in the low-input and organic systems. Regarding the findings, it can be stated that high-input and conventional systems resulted in increase of quantitative yield, but organic and transition to organic systems led to an increased NPK uptake and improvement of the grain baking related traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain amylose content
  • Lodging index
  • Organic farming
  • Paddy field ecosystem
  • Rice
Adusumilli, R. and Laxmi, S.B. (2011). Potential of the system of rice intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 89-97.

Anas, I., Rupela, O.P., Thiyagarajan, T.M. and Uphoff, N. (2011). A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial organisms in rice soil rhizospheres. Paddy and Water Environment. 9(1): 53-64.

Anitha, S. and Chellappan, M. (2011). Comparison of the system of rice intensification (SRI), recommended practices, and farmers’ methods of rice (Oryza sativa) production in the humid tropics of Kerala, India. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 49(1/2): 64-71.

Dastan, S., Noormohamadi, G. and Madani, H. (2014). Comparison of agronomical traits of four rice genotypes in cropping systems at Neka region. Agricultural Crop Management. 16(2): 231-246. (In Persian)

Dastan, S., Noormohamadi, G., Madani, H. and Soltani, A. (2015a). Analysis of energy indices in rice production systems in the Neka region. Environmental Sciences. 13(1): 53-66. (In Persian)

Dastan, S., Noormohamadi, G., Madani, H., Ebrahimi, M. and Yasari, E. (2016b). Investigation of growth and phenology of main crop and ratoon of rice cultivars in differents cropping systems. Plant Production Technology. 8(1): 81-101. (In Persian)

Dastan, S., Siavoshi, M., Zakavi, D., Ghanbari Malidarreh, A., Yadi, R., Ghorbannia, E. and Nasiri, A. (2012). Application of nitrogen and silicon rates on morphological and chemical lodging related characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa) at the north of Iran. Journal of Agriculture Science. 4(6): 12-18.

Dastan, S., Soltani, A. and Alimagham, M. (2017). Documenting the process of local rice cultivars production in two conventional and semi-mechanized planting methods in Mazandaran province. Cereal Research. 7(4): 485-502. (In Persian)

Dastan, S., Soltani, A., Noormohamadi, G. and Madani, H. (2015b). CO2 emission and global warming potential (GWP) of energy consumption in paddy field production systems. Journal of Agroecology. 6(4): 823-835. (In Persian)

Dastan, S., Soltani, A., Noormohamadi, G., Madani, H. and Yadi, R. (2016a). Estimation of the carbon footprint and global warming potential in rice production systems. Environmental Sciences. 14(1): 19-22. (In Persian)

Dobermann, A. (2005). Nitrogen use efficiency - State of the art. IFA International Workshop on Enhanced - Efficiency Fertilizers Frankfurt, Germany, 28-30 June.

Fageria, N.K., Gheyi, H.R. and Carvalho, C.S. (2014). Yield, potassium uptake, and use efficiency in upland rice genotypes. II INOVAGRI International Meeting, 13-16 April, Fortaleza, Brazil. pp 4515-4520.

Farooq, M., Kobayashi, N., Wahid, A., Ito, O. and Basra, S.M.A. (2009). Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Advances in Agronomy101: 351-388.

Gholami Rezvani, N., Esfahani, M., Kabii Rahnama, Sh., Alami, A., Nahvi, M. and Alizadeh, M.R. (2013). Effect of seed rate on yield and lodging related morphological traits of rice cv. Hashemi in direct seeding methods. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 2-30(1): 61-85. (In Persian)

Habibi, E., Niknejad, Y., Fallah, H., Dastan, S. and Barari Tari, D. (2019). Life cycle assessment of rice production systems in different paddy field size levels in north of Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 191:202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7344-0

Habibi, F., Yekta, M., Adeli, F., Foroughi, M., Nouri, L. and Mohseni, T. (2014). Improving amylose content investigation methods of rice grain by ISO 6647 method. Technical Journal No. 6. Rice Research Institute of Iran. 18 pp. (In Persian)

Haden, V., Duxbury, R.J.M., Di Tommaso, A. and Losey, J.E. (2007). Weed community dynamics in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and the efficacy of mechanical cultivation and competitive rice cultivars for weed control in Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 30(4): 5-26.

Hameed, K.A., Jaber, F.A., Hadi, A.Y., Elewi, J.A. and Uphoff, N. (2011b). Application of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods on productivity of Jasmine rice variety in southern Iraq. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 7(3): 474-481.

Hameed, K.A., Mosa, A.K.J. and Jabe, F.A. (2011a). Irrigation water reduction using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 121-127.

Hasanjani, H., Hoseini Chaleshtari, M., Khadem-Alhoseini, N.A. and Alizadeh, M.R. (2007). Evaluation of different rice harvesting methods in Guilan province. Agricultural Journal. 9(1): 23-38. (In Persian)

IRRI. (1996). International Rice Research Institute. Rice reporter, Jun. 96. Manila, Philippines.

Islam, M.S., Peng, S., Visperas, R., Ereful, N., Bhuiya, M.S.U. and Julfiquar, A.W. (2007). Lodging-related morphological traits of hybrid rice in a tropical irrigated ecomethod.  Field Crops Research. 101: 240-248.

Kashiwagi, T. and Ishimaru, K. (2004). Identification and analysis of a locus for improvement of lodging resistance in rice. Plant Physiology. 134: 676-683.

Martre, P., Porter, J.R., Jamieson, P.D. and Triboi, E. (2003). Modeling grain nitrogen accumulation and protein composition to understand the sink/source regulations of nitrogen remobilization for wheat. Plant Physiology. 133: 1959-1967.

Monajem, S., Ranji, A., Khani, M., Atari, H. and Dorosti, H. (2013). Evaluation of rice production systems in Guilan province by using of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Cereal Research. 3(3): 255-266. (In Persian)

Ramazani, A., Sorooshzadeh, A. and Solhi, M. (2016). Effect of cultivation systems and zinc foliar application on yield, yield components and water consumption of rice. Cereal Research. 6(1): 43-55. (In Persian)

Samonte, S.O., Wilson, L.T., Medley, J.C., Pinson, S.R.M., McClung, A.M. and Lales, J.S. (2006). Nitrogen utilization efficiency: relationships with grain yield, grain protein, and yield-related traits in rice. Agronomy Journal. 98: 168-176.

Sharif, A. (2011). Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 111-119.

Stoop, W.A. (2005). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Results from exploratory field research in livery coast research needs and prospects for adaptation to diver's production systems of resource-poor farmers. West African Rice Development Association (WARDA).

Stoop, W.A. and Kassam, A.H. (2006). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Implications for Agronomic Research. Published in Tropical Agriculture Association Newsletter.

Styger, E., Aboubacrine, G., Attaher, M.A. and Uphoff, N. (2011b). The system of rice intensification as a sustainable agricultural innovation: introducing, adapting and scaling up a system of rice intensification practices in the Timbuktu region of Mali. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 9(1): 67-75.

Styger, E., Attaher, M.A., Guindo, H., Ibrahim, H., Diaty, M., Abba, I. and Traore, M. (2011a). Application of system of rice intensification practices in the arid environment of the Timbuktu region in Mali. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 137-144.

Thakur, A.K., Rath, S., Patil, D.U. and Kumar, A. (2011). Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 13-24.

Thakur, A.K., Uphoff, N. and Antony, E. (2010). An assess­ment of physiological effects of system of rice inten­sification (SRI) practices compared to recommend rice cultivated practices in India. In: Experimental Agriculture. 46: 77-98.

Thomas, V. and Ramzi, A.M. 2011. SRI contributions to rice production dealing with water management constraints in northeastern Afghanistan. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 101-109.

Torabi, M.H., Soltani, A., Dastan, S. and Ajam Norouzi, H. (2019). Assessment of energy flow, carbon saving, and greenhouse gas emission in rice production scenarios. Environmental Sciences. 16(4): 187-212. (In Persian)

Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral-detergent fiber and no starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.Journal of Dairy Science.74: 3583-3597.

Veeramani, P., Durai Singh, R. and Subrahmaniyan, K. 2012.  Study of phyllochron System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technique. Agricultural Science Research Journal. 2(6): 329-334.

Veeraputhiran, R., Balasubramanian, R., Pandian, B.J., Chelladurai, M., Tamilselvi, R. and Renganathan, V.J. (2012). Influence of System of Rice Intensification on yield, water use and economics through farmers participatory approach. Madras Agricultural Journal 99(4/6): 251-254.

Veisi, H., Khoshbakht, K. and Mahdavi Damghani, A.M. (2009). Rice ecosystem sustainability in Mazandaran province: Agro-technical characteristics. Environmental Sciences. 6(4): 135-144. (In Persian)

Xu, F., Ma, J., Wang, H., Liu, H., Huang, Q. and Ma, W. (2005). Rice quality under the cultivation of SRI. Acta Agronomica Sinica. 31: 577-582.

Yadi, R., Siavoshi, M., Mobasser, H.R., Dastan, S. and Nasiri, A.R. (2012). Effect of plant density on morphologic characteristics related to lodging and yield components in different rice varieties (Oryza sativa). Journal of Agriculture Science. 4(1): 31-38.