اثر سطوح مختلف کود آلی ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت بر فاکتورهای رشدی، بیوشیمیایی و جذب عناصر غذایی مرزه تابستانه (Satureja hortensis L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه خاکشناسی شرکت کشاورزی و دامپروری کاوندیش نیشابور، نیشابور، ایران

3 گروه بیوتکنولوژی و به‌نژادی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

ورمی‌کمپوست به‌عنوان کود زیستی، از طریق بهبود خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک و افزایش جذب عناصر غذایی توسط گیاه و آزومیت با داشتن طیف کاملی از عناصر مفید، سبب افزایش عملکرد و بهبود صفات رشدی گیاهان می‌شوند. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت بر عملکرد و برخی ویژگی‌های کیفی و جذب عناصر معدنی در مرزه تابستانه آزمایشی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1396 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور شامل کود آلی ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت به‌ترتیب در چهار سطح (0، 5، 10 و 15 درصد) و (0، 3، 6 و 9 گرم در کیلوگرم خاک) و در سه تکرار انجام شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل ارتفاع گیاه، وزن‌تر و خشک بوته، تعداد شاخه‌فرعی، محتوای رطوبت نسبی، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، میزان فنل کل و کربوهیدرات محلول و همچنین جذب عناصر غذایی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده توأم ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت به‌ویژه سطوح 10 و 15 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست به همراه کاربرد 3 گرم آزومیت در کیلوگرم خاک سبب افزایش معنی‌دار صفات رشدی گیاه از قبیل وزن‌تر و خشک برگ و ساقه، طول میانگره و قطر ساقه و صفات بیوشیمیایی نظیر محتوای رطوبت نسبی، میزان قند محلول و رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی نسبت به گیاهان شاهد (عدم کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت) گردید. برهمکنش بین ورمی‌کمپوست و آزومیت بر غلظت نیتروژن، فسفر، سدیم، آهن، روی و منگنز برگ مرزه تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت؛ به‌طوری‌که استفاده از ورمی‌کمپوست (سطوح 10 و 15 درصد) همراه با آزومیت (در هر سه سطح) سبب افزایش قابل‌توجه غلظت این عناصر نسبت به شاهد گردید. همچنین مشاهده گردید که استفاده از ورمی‌کمپوست به‌تنهایی سبب افزایش معنی‌دار میزان پتاسیم و منیزیم در گیاه نسبت به تیمار بدون کود گشت. درمجموع نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده از کود ورمی‌کمپوست و خاک معدنی آزومیت می‌تواند باعث بهبود صفات کمی و کیفی و جذب عناصر غذایی در گیاه مرزه تابستانه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of vermicompost and Azomite on growth parameters, biochemical traits and absorption of nutrients in summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rasoul Narimani 1
  • Mohammad Moghaddam 1
  • Hassan Ebrahimi 2
  • Danial Shokouhi 3
1 Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Earth Science, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Company of Cavendish, Neyshabur, Iran
3 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Vermicompost as a bio-fertilizer increases plant yield and improves its growth traits through improving the physicochemical properties of the soil and enhancement of nutrients absorption by plants. Azomite also improves plant yield and growth traits through exhaustive range of beneficial elements. In order to investigate effects of different levels of vermicompost and Azomite application on growth and some qualitative characteristics and mineral absorption of summer savory, a pot factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications and two factors, namely vermicompost and Azomite in four levels (0, 5, 10, and 15%) and (0, 3, 6, and 9 g/kg soil), respectively in the research greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty,  Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2018. The traits under investigation included plant height, plant fresh and dry weight, number of branches, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and soluble carbohydrates content, as well as absorption of nutrients. Results showed that application 10% and 15% vermicompost combined with 3 grams of Azomite per kg of soil increased significantly plant growth parameters such as leaf and stem fresh and dry weight, internode length, and stem diameter as well as biochemical traits such as relative water content, soluble sugar content, and photosynthetic pigments compared to control plants (non-application of vermicompost and Azomite). The interaction between vermicompost and Azomite had a significant effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, iron, zinc, and manganese concentrations. The use of vermicompost (levels 10% and 15%) with Azomite (at all three levels) significantly increased the concentration of these elements compared to the control treatment. It was also observed that the use of vermicompost as alone caused a significant increase in potassium and magnesium in plants compared with non-fertilized treatment. In general, the results of this experiment showed that using vermicompost and Azomite mineral fertilizer can improve quantitative and qualitative traits and absorption of nutrients in summer savory.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidant activity
  • Growth Indicators
  • nutrients
  • Organic Fertilizer
  • Photosynthetic pigments
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