بررسی اثر بهبود دهنده اسید سالسیلیک و کیتوزان در گیاه باباآدم (Arctium lappa L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

اسید سالسیلک و کیتوزان مقاومت در برابر خشکی را با استفاده از مکانیسم­های مختلف افزایش می­دهند. به همین منظور آزمایش  مزرعه ای در رابطه با تأثیر کاربرد کیتوزان و اسید سالسیلیک بر صفات مورفولوژی و فیزیولوژی در گیاه دارویی باباآدم در شرایط تنش خشکی به صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو سال 1396 و 1397 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه پیام نور اصفهان اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل عامل اصلی آبیاری در سه سطح، آبیاری پس از 40، 60 و 80 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی قابل دسترس (I1-I3) و عامل فرعی محلول پاشی در چهار سطح، عدم محلول­پاشی، محلول­پاشی کیتوزان 5 گرم بر لیتر، محلول­پاشی اسید سالسیلیک 1 میلی­گرم بر لیتر و کاربرد توام آنها (S1-S4) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تشدید کم آبی میزان موسیلاژ، فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی اکسیدان و گونه­های واکنشی اکسیژن در گیاه باباآدم را نسبت به عدم تنشI1، افزایش داد. میزان موسیلاژ ریشه افزایش­ 61 و 110 درصدی  را در تیمار I2 و­I3  در مقایسه با تیمار I1، بدون در نظر گرفتن محلول پاشی نشان داد. همچنین کاربرد کیتوزان و اسید سالسیلیک اثرات منفی کم آبی را بر پارامترهای تبادل گازی، محتوی کلروفیل، جذب عناصر غذایی و وضعیت آبی گیاه را کاهش داد. مقدار فتوسنتز خالص در گیاه باباآدم در تیمار محلول پاشی S2-S4 در مقایسه با تیمار عدم محلول پاشی S1 بدون توجه به تیمار­های آبیاری را بطور متوسط به ترتیب 9/1، 9/2 و 4/2 میکرومول دی­اکسیدکربن در مترمربع در ثانیه افزایش داد. بنابراین می­توان نتیجه گیری کرد که کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک و کیتوزان به طور موثری باعث افزایش کارایی گیاه باباآدم در تنش خشکی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Alleviatory activities of salicylic acid and chitosan in burdock plant (Arctium lappa L.) under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Noora
  • Ali reza Safahani
Agronomy Department, Payam-e-noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salicylic acid and chitosan improve the plants’ resistance against drought stress through various mechanisms. To date, no information is available about the simultaneous effect of drought stress, chitosan, and salicylic acid onthe biochemical and physiological responses of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) plant. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in a split plot form based on randomized complete block design with four replicates at the experimental farm of the Agriculture Faculty of Payame Noor University in Isfahan, during two successive years (2017-2018). Treatments included irrigation as the main factor at three levels (40%, 60%, and 80% hereafter called I1, I2 and I3, respectively), based on a predefined level of maximum allowable depletion of the threshold of available soil water, and four levels of foliar applications as the subplots (control, 5 g/liter of chitosan, 1 mg/liter of salicylic acid, and combined application of salicylic acid and chitosan hereafter called S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively). Results indicated that the reduction of irrigation water, I2 and I3 treatments, compared to I1 treatment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the content of reactive oxygen species, and content of mucilage in burdock plant. The mucilage content in root showed an increase by 61%, and 110% in I2 and I3, respectively, in comparison with I1 regardless of foliar applications. Also, application of chitosan and salicylic acid led to improved chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, plant water status, and the uptake of nutrients. Burdock photosynthesis rate was higher in S2-S4 than S1 regardless of irrigation levels (on the average 1.9, 2.9, and 2.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively). It is therefore suggested that application of chitosan and salicylic acid could be effective in growing burdock under drought stress.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Burdock
  • Chitosan
  • Mucilage
  • Reduced irrigation
  • Salicylic acid
Abdolahi, M. and Farahani, S.M. (2015). Evaluation of seed yield, mucilage and protein of different species and ecotypes of balangu (Lallemantia spp.) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31: 676-686.

Afshara, R.K., Hashemi, M., DaCosta, M., Spargo, J. and Sadeghpour, A. (2016). Biochar application and drought stress effects on physiological characteristics of Silybum marianum. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47(6): 743–752.

Agarwal, S. and Pandey, V. (2004). Antioxidant enzyme resposes to NaCl stress in Cassia angustifolia. Biologia Plantarum, 48: 555-560.

Alvarez, S. and Sanchez-Blanco, M.J. (2013). Changes in growth rate, root  morphology and water use efficiency of potted Callistemon citrinus plants in response to different levels of water deficit. Scientia Horticulture, 156: 54–62.

Amiri, A., Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Yadollahi Dehcheshmeh, P. and Sirousmehr, A. (2017). The Role of salicylic acid and chitosan foliar applications under drought stress condition on some physiological traits and oil yield of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).  Journal of Crop Ecophysiology.  11: 69-84.

Bahramian, A. (2015). Effect of water stress on phenology and growth indices of burdock (Arctium lappa L.). MSc. Thesis. I. A. Univ. Branch-Sharkord. (In Persian).

Bittelli, M., Flury, M., Campbell, G.S. and Nichols, E.J. (2000). Reduction of transpiration through foliar application of chitosan. Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 107: 167-175.

Boonlertinirun, S., Chaweewan, B. and Suvanasara, R. (2008). Application of chitosan in rice production. Journal of Metals Materials and Minerals. 18: 47-52.

Cavalcanti, F. R., Oliveira, J. T., Martins-Miranda, A., Viegas, A. S. and Silveira, R. A. (2004). Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities do not confer protection against oxidative damage in salt- saltstressed. New Phytologist. 163: 563-571.

Chan, Y.S., Cheng, L.N., Wu, J.H., Chan, E., Kwan, Y.W., Lee, S.M., Leung, G.P., Yu, P.H. and Chan, S.W. (2010). A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. 19: 245–254.

Cheng, X., Zhou, U. and Cui, X. (2006). Improvement of phenylethanoid glycosides biosynthesis in Cistanche deserticola cell suspension cultures by chitosan elicitor. Journal of Biotechnology, 121: 253 - 60.

Datta, P. and Kulkarni, M. (2014). Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia arabica under salt stress. Journal of BioScience & Biotechnology, 3: 235-245.

De Carvalho, M.H.C. (2008). Drought stress and reactive oxygen species. Plant signaling & Behavior, 3: 156-165.

Dehnavi, M.M., Niknam, N., Behzadi, Y., Mohtashami, R. and Bagheri, R. (2017). Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 9: 39-62.

Dionisio-Sese, M.L. and Tobita, S. (1998). Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Science, 135: 1-9.

El-Lateef Gharib, F. (2006). Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, metabolic activities and oil content of basil and marjoram. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8:485-492.

Farouk, S., Mosa, A.A, Taha, A.A, Ibrahim Heba, M. and EL-Gahmery, A.M. (2011). Protective effect of humic acid and chitosan on radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) plants subjected to cadmium stress. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 7:99-116.

Gautam, P.P., Fritz, A.K., Kirkham, M.B.K. and Gill, B. (2011). Response of aegilops species to drought stress during reproductive stages of development. Fundamental for Life. Soil, Crop and Environmental Sciences. International Annual Meetings. Pp:16-19.

Ge, T., Sun, N., Bai, L., Tong, C. and Sui, F. (2012). Effects of drought stress on phosphorus and potassium uptake dynamics in summer maize (Zea mays) throughout the growth cycle. Acta Physiology Plantarum, 34: 2179–2186.

Gornik, K., Grzesik, M. and Duda, B.R. (2008). The effect of chitosan on rooting of grapevine cuttings and on subsequent plant growth under drought and temperature stress. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 16: 333-343.

Gu, L. Q., Li, C.X., Qiao, Y.X., Gao, F.J. and Lu, H. (2010). Effects of Exogenous Chitosan on Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings under Drought Stress. Southwest China Journal Agriculture Science, 1: 70- 73.

Guan, Y.J., Hu, J., Wang, X.J. and Shao, C.X. (2009). Seed priming with chitosan improves maize stress germination and seedling growth in relation to physiology changes under low temperature. J. Zhejiang University- Science. 10:427-433.

Harish Prashanth, K.V., Dharmesh, S.M., Jagannatha Rao, K.S. and Tharanathan, R.N. (2007). Free radical-induced chitosan depolymerized products protect calf thymus DNA from oxidative damage. Carbohydrate Research, 342:190 – 195.

Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. (2010). Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 14-25.

Horváth, E., Szalai, G. and Janda, T. (2007). Induction of abiotic stress tolerance by salicylic acid signaling. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 26:290-300.

Iriti, M., and Faoro, F. (2009). Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR. Plant signaling & behavior, 4:66-68.

Jalalvand, A., Andalibi, B. and Tavakoli, A. (2018). Evaluation the effects of cycocel and salicylic acid on some physiological characteristic and essential oil under normal and drought conditions in medical plant Dragonhed (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Journal of Plant Production Resarch, 24:111-128.

Janero, D.R. (1990). Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 9:515–540.

Kanazawa, S., Sano, S., Koshiba, T. and Ushimaru, T. (2000). Changes in antioxidative enzymes in cucumber cotyledons during natural senescence: comparison with those during dark-induced senescence. Physiologia Plantarum, 109:211–216.

Luan L.Q., Ha, V.T.T., Nagasawa, N., Kume, T., Yoshii, F. and Nakanishi, T.M. (2005). Biological effect of irradiated chitosan on plantsin vitro, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 41:49 - 57.

Liu, Y., Cui, Y. and Mukherjee, A. (2007). Characterization of a novel RNA regulator of Erwinia carotovora spp. Carotovora that controls production of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolites. Molecular Microbiology, 29:219-34.

Manivannan, P., Abdul Jaleel, C., Sanka, B., Kishorekumar, A., Somasundaram, R., Lakshmanan, G.M.A. and Panneerselvam. R. (2007). Growth, biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuus L. as induced by drought stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 59:141–149.

Moradi, K.A.Z.E.M., Shangari, A.H., Shahrajabian, M.H., Gharineh, M.H. and Madandost, M.  (2010). Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) response to irrigation intervals and different nitrogen levels. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26:196-204.

Moran, R. (1982). Formula for determination of chlorophyllous pigments extracted with N.N.dimethylformamide. Plant Physiology, 69:1371-1381.

Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate- specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22:867–880.

Nematollahi, A., Jafari, A. and Bagheri, A. (2013). Effects of drought and salicylic acid on photosynthetic pigment and nutrient uptake of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Plant EchoPhysiology, 5:86-102.

Niu, J., Zhang, S., Iu, S.L., Ma, H., Chen, J., Shen, Q., Ge, C., Zhang, X., Pang, C. and Zhao, X. (2008). The compensation effects of physiology and yield in cotton after drought stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 224: 30-48.

Omidbaigi, R., Hassani, A. and Sefidkon, F. (2003). Essential oil content and composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) at different irrigation regimes. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plant, 6:104-108.

Panda, R.K., Behera, S.K. and Kashyap, P.S. (2004). Effective management of irrigation water for maize under stressed conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 66:181–203.

Pariser, E.R. and Lombardi, D.P. (1988). A guide to the research literature chitin, Source book. Plenum Press. New York, U.S.A. p: 560.

Pichynagkura, R. and Kudan, S. (2002). Quantitative production of 2-acetamido 2-deoxy-Dglucose from Cryatallin Chitin by Bactrial Chitinase. Carbohydrate Resarch, 337:1-9.

Premchandra, G.S., Saneoka, H. and Ogata, S. (1990). Cell membrane stability, an indicator of drought tolerance as affected by applied nitrogen in soybean. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 115: 63–66.

Ramachandra, R.A., Choityana, K.V. and Ivekanadan, A. (2004). Drought-induced response to photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161: 1189-1202.

Ramroudi, M. and Khamar, A.R. (2013). Interaction of salicylic acid spraying and irrigation treatments on some properties of quantitative, qualitative and basil osmotic regulator. Journal Applied Research EchoPhysiology plants, 1: 19- 32.

Reddy, T.Y., Reddy, V.R. and Anbumozhi, N. (2003). Physiological responses of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to drought stress and its amelioration: critical review. Plant Growth Regulation, 41: 75-78.

Sairam, R.K. (1994). Effect of moisture stress on physiological activities of two contrasting wheat genotypes. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 32: 594–597.

 Samsam Shariat, H. (2007). Medicinal plant extracts and extract active ingredients and methods of identification and evaluation. Publication Mani. Isfahan. 258 pp. Smart, R.E. (1974). Rapid estimate of relative water content. Plant Physiology, 53: 258–260.

Schutz, M., and Fangmeir, E. (2001). Growth and yield responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Minaret) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution. 114: 187-194.

Shekofteh, H., Shahrokhi, H. and Solimani, E. (2015). Effect of drought stress and salicylic acid on yield and mucilage content of the medicinal herb Plantago ovata Forssk. Desert, 20: 245-252.

Singh, B. and Usha, K. (2003). Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 39: 137-141.

Singh, B.K., Sharma, S.R. and Singh, B. (2010). Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage: variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. Scientia Horticulturae, 124: 9–13.

Singh, V.D., Verma, S.K. and Singh, B.L. (1990). Effect of irrigation and phosphorus on safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) yield in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 40: 644-647.

Soltani, A. (2005). Re-consideration of application of statical methods in agricultural researches. Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad Press.

Tari, I., Csiszar, J., Szalai, G., Horvath, F., Pecsvaradi, A., Kiss, G., Szepesi, A., Szabo, M. and Redei, L. (2002). Acclimation of tomato plants to salinity stress after a salicylic acid pretreatment. Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 46: 55-56.

Uthairatanakij, A., Teixeira, J. A. and Obsuwan, K. (2007). Chitosan for improving Orchid production and quality. Science, 1: 1- 5.

Van Rossum, M.W.P.C., Alberda, M. and Van der Plas, L.H.W. (1997). Role of oxidative damage in tulip bulb scale micropropagation. Plant Science, 130: 207–216.

Velikova, V., Yordanov, I. and Edreva, A. (2000). Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science, 151: 59–66.

Vicente, M. and Plasencia, J. (2011). Salicylic acid beyond defence: its role in plant growth and development. Journal of Experimental Botani, 62: 3321-3338.

Wang, S.Y. and Jiao, H. (2000). Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 5677–5684.

Wasternack, C. and Hause, B. (2013). Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany. Annals of Botany, 111: 1021–1058.

Xie, W.M., Xu, P. X. and Liu, Q. (2001). Antioxidant activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 11: 1699-1701.

Xue, G. X., Gao, H.Y., Li, P.M. and Zou, Q. (2004). Effects of chitosan treatment on physiological and biochemical characteristics in cucumber seedlings under low temperature. Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 30: 441-448.

Yazdanpanah, S., Baghizadeh, A. and Abbassi, F. (2011). The interaction between drought stress and salicylic and ascorbic acids on some biochemical characteristics of Satureja hortensis. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 798-807.

Zargari, A. (1997). Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2, 6th ed. Tehran University Publication, Tehran, pp: 619.

Zhili, J., Yong, L., Juanjuan, L., Xu, X., Li, H., Lu, D. and Jingying, W. (2012). Effects of exogenous chitosan on physiological characteristics of potato seedlings under drought stress and rehydration. Potato Research, 55: 293-301.