اثرات همزمان نانوذرات سیلیس، پتاسیم، کود بیولوژیک و شیمیایی نیتروژن بر جذب برخی عناصر و عملکرد شلتوک ارقام برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه زراعت، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران.

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

4 پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر نانوذرات سیلیس و پتاسیم و مقادیر نیتروژن در دو رقم بومی و اصلاح شده برنج، تحقیقی در مزرعه‌ای واقع در شهرستان ساری در سال 1393 اجرا شد. آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت - فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. دو رقم بومی طارم محلی و اصلاح شده طارم هاشمی به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و کود نیتروژن در سه سطح شامل 35 و 70 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار به همراه کود بیولوژیک نیتروکسین (بدون مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن) و نانو ذرات در سه سطح محلول‌پاشی نانوسیلیکون (20 پی‌پی‌ام)، محلول‌پاشی نانو پتاسیم (به میزان دو در هزار) و عدم مصرف آنها (شاهد) به‌صورت فاکتوریل به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد رقم طارم هاشمی حداکثر عملکرد شلتوک (5000 کیلوگرم در هکتار) با مصرف 70 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و نانوپتاسیم تولید شد. برای رقم طارم محلی نیز بیشترین عملکرد شلتوک (4657 کیلوگرم در هکتار) با مصرف 35 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و نانوپتاسیم به‌دست آمد. بیشترین غلظت سیلیس شلتوک با مصرف نانوسیلیس به‌دست آمد. بیشترین غلظت نیتروژن و پتاسیم شلتوک با مصرف 70 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به دست آمد. برای هر دو رقم بیشترین غلظت پتاسیم شلتوک با مصرف 70 کیلوگرم نیتروژن به همراه مصرف نانوپتاسیم و نانوسیلیس حاصل شد. بنابراین، مصرف نانوذرات در هر دو رقم باعث افزایش عملکرد کمی و کیفی برنج شد. از این‌رو، استفاده از منابع کودی نانوسیلیس و نانوپتاسیم در برنامه تغذیه برنج می‌تواند در افزایش عملکرد، بهبود کیفیت دانه و همچنین افزایش تحمل به تنش‌های محیطی مؤثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simultaneous effects of silica nanoparticles, potassium, biological and nitrogen chemical fertilizers on the absorption of some elements and yield of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehrdad Ghasemi Lemraski 1
  • Hamid Madani 2
  • Nasibe Rezvan talab 3
  • salman dastan 4
1 Agriculture Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 2- Associate Professor of Agriculture Department of Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
4 Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of silica and potassium nanoparticles and nitrogen levels in two native and improved rice varieties, a field experiment was conducted in Sari city in 2014. The experiment was split-factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Two native cultivars of local and improved Tarom Hashemi were considered as main factor and nitrogen fertilizer in three levels including 35 and 70 kg of urea per hectare with biological fertilizer nitroxin (without fertilizer nitrogen fertilizer) and nanoparticles in three levels of nanosilicon spraying, Potassium and their lack of use (control) were considered as a sub-factor as factorial. The results indicated that cultivar of Tarom Hashemi produced the maximum grain yield (5000 kg ha-1) with 70 kg of nitrogen and nanopotassium. For local Tarom cultivar, the highest yield of rice (4657 kg ha-1) was obtained by consuming 35 kg of nitrogen and nanopotassium. The highest concentration of silica was obtained by using nanosilica. The highest nitrogen and potassium concentrations were obtained with 70 kg N ha-1. For each cultivar, the highest concentration of potassium potassium was obtained using 70 kg of nitrogen plus nanoparticulate and nano-silica. Therefore, the use of nanoparticles in both cultivars increased the quantitative and qualitative yield of rice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nano-silicon
  • Nano-potassium
  • nitrogen
  • Nitroxin
  • Rice grain yield
Agarie, S., Uchida, H., Agata, H. and Kubota, W. (1996). Function of silica bodies in epidermal system of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany. 47: 655-660.

Behtash, F., Tabatabayi, S.J., Malakoti, M.J., Sarvaroddin, M.H. and Oostan, SH. (2010). Effects of Zinc and cadmium on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Cd concentration in beet. Journal of Soil Research. 24(1): 31-41. (In Persian).

Bernal, J. (2008). Response of rice and Sugarcane to magnesium Silicate in different Soils of  Colombia, South America. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture. 26-31 October, Wild Coast Sun, South Africa. pp: 25-26.

Bhavya, H.K., Nachegowda, V., Jaganath, S., Sreenivas, K.N. and Prakash, N.B. (2011). Effect of foliar silicic acid and boron acid in Bangalore blue grapes. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 7-8.

Bokhtiar, S.M. (2011). Effects of silicon on yield contributing parameters and its accumulation in abaxial epidermis of sugarcane leaf blades using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 11-12.

Camargo-Msartori, D.E., Júnior, A.R.G. and Korndörfer, GH. (2011). Silicate fertilization in sugarcane: effects on soluble silicon in soil, uptake and occurrence of stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis). Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 14-20.

Chaudhary, S.M., Muzzammil, H., Iqbal, J. and Anjum, M.A. (2009). Effect of nitrogen doses on incidence of bacterial leaf blight in rice. Journal of Agriculture Researches. 47(3): 253-258.

Chen, W., Yao, X., Cai, K. and Chen, J. (2010). Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, Photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption. Biological Trace Element Research. 142: 67-76.

Dhamapurkar, V.B., Talashilkar, S.C. and Sonar, K.R. (2011). Effect of calcium silicate slag on yield and silica uptake by rice. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture. September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 39-40.

Ding, T.P., Tian, S.H., Gao, J.F., Wan, D.F., Sun, L., Ma, G.R. and Wu, L.H. (2011). Silicon isotope composition of rice plants and implications for the global silicon cycle. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 40-41.

Elawad, S.H. and Green, V.E. (1979). Silicon and the rice plant environment: a review of recent research. Riv. Riso. 28: 235-253.

Fageria, N.K. and Baligar, V.C. (2001). Lowland rice response to nitrogen fertilization. soil science Plant Annual, 32: 140-142.

Faghih, M.M., Tashakori, A., Mobasser, H.R., Yadi, R. and Dastan, S. (2011). Investigating the results of two years of irrigation intervals and potash fertilizer application on morphological characteristics and quantitative yield of rice, cv. Shirudi. 12th Iranian Soil Science Congress. September 12-14, Tabriz University, Iran.  

Fairhurst, T., Buresh, R. and Dobermann, A. (2007). Rice (A Practical Guide to Nutrient Management). Second edition, International Plant Nutrition. Institute, pp: 91-92.

Fallah, A. (2008). Studies effect of silicon on lodging parameters in rice plant under hydroponics culture in a greenhouse experiment. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, 26-31 October, Wild Coast Sun, South Africa. pp: 37-38.

Fallah, A., Osko, T., Khosravi, V., Mohammadian, M. and Rosttami, M. (2011). Reduction of chemical pesticides by using of silicate fertilizer in paddy fields. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 45-46. 

Fallah, A., Visperas, R.M. and Alejar, A.A. (2004). The interactive effect of silicon and nitrogen on growth and spikelet filling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Philippines Agricultural Scientist. 87: 174-176.

Ghanbari-Malidarh, A., Kashani, A., Nourmohammadi, G., Mobasser, H.R., Alavi, V. and Fallah, A. (2008). Effect of silicon and nitrogen rates on leaf and neck blast, chlorophyll content and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two water management systems (flooding and deficit irrigation) in the north of Iran. PhD dissertation, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran. 160p. (In Persian)

Greger, M., Landberg, T., Vaculik, M. and Lux, A. (2011). Silicon influences nutrient status in plants. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 56-57.

Isfahani, M., Sadrzade, M., Kavoosi, M. and Dabagh-Mohammadi-Nasab, A. (2005). Study the effect of different levels of nitrogen and potassium fertitizers on yield, yield components and growth of rice cv. Tarom. Agrobreed Journal. 7(3): 226-240. (In Persian)

Islam, M.S., Bhuiya, M.S.U., Rahman, S. and Hussain, M. (2009). Evaluation of SPAD and LCC based nitrogen management in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture Research. 34(4): 661-672.

Jian-peng, F., Qing-hua, S. and Xiu-feng, W. (2009). Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Chloroplast of Cucumber Seedlings under Excess Manganese. Agricultural Sciences in China. 8: 40-50.

Kamkar, B. and Mahdavi-damghani, A. (2008). Principals of Sustainable Agriculture. JDM press, Iran. 315p.   

Khaldbarin, B. and Eslamzade, T. (2001). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Shiraz University Press, Iran. 495p. (In Persian)

Kindomihou, V., Teka, O.S., Adjolohoun, S., Holou, R.A.Y., Houessou, L., Dagbénonbakin, G., Agbangba, E.C., Gruber, W., Adandédjan, C., Sinsin, B., Lejoly, J. and Meerts, P. (2011). Leaf silicification, covariations with minerals concentrations and forage value of three tropical miscellaneous species from sudation Benin. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 80-81.  

Manavi, S.S. (2012). Cmparison of different sources of silicon on the morphological traits and Rice Lodging index. Thesis, Islamic Azad university of Qaemshahr Branch.

Matsuo, T., Knmazawa, K., Ishi, R., Ishihara, K. and Hirata, J. (1995). Science of the rice plant. Food and Agriculture Policy Research Center, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1240.

Mobasser, H.R., Ghanbari-Malidareh, A. and Sedghi, A.H. (2008). Effect of silicon application to nitrogen rate and splitting on agronomical characteristics rice (Oryza sativa L.). Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, October 26-31, Wild Coast Sun, South Africa. pp: 56-57.

Murillo-Amador, B., Jones, H.G., Kayac, V. and Aguilar, R.L. (2006). Effect of foliar application of calcium nitrate on growth and physiological attributes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) grown under salt stress. Environmental Botany. 58: 188-196.

Peyvast, G., Zaree M.R. and Samizadeh, H. (2009). Interaction of silicon and on lettuce growth under NFT system condition. Journal of Horticulture Science. 22: 367-374. (In Persian)

Rahimi, Z. and Kafi, M. (2010). Effects of salinity and silicon application on biomass accumulation, sodium and potassium content of leaves and roots purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Journal of Water and Soil. 24(2): 367-374. (In Persian)

Romero-Aranda, M.R., Jurado, O. and Cuartero, J. (2006). Rapid isoelectric focusing in a vertical polyacrylamide system. Ann. Biochemistry. 167: 290-294.

Sandhya, T.S., Prakash, N.B., Nagaraja, A. and Nanja- Reddy, Y.A. (2011). Genotypic variation for silicon accumulation and effect of foliar silicic acid on growth and yield of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China. pp: 183-184.  

Shashidhar, H.E., Chandrashekhar, N., Narayanaswamy, C., Mahendra, A.C. and Prakash, N.B. (2008). Calcium silicate as silicon source and its interaction with nitrogen in air. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture. October 26-31, Wild Coast Sun, South Africa. pp: 92-93.

Tabrizi, A., Darvishkojouri, F.G., Nourmohammadi, Mobasser, H.R., Alavi, S.V. and Ganbari-malidarreh, A.  (2011).  Effect  of  pre-plants  and  nitrogen rates  on  yield  and  yield  component of  lowland  rice (Oryza sativa L.) nutrition and  organic  matter  of  soil. World Applied Sciences Journal. 13(9): 2118-2125.

Wang, D.J. and Du, F.B. (2011).Agronomic effects of silicon-potash fertilizer in wheat/maize and wheat/ soybean rotation system during 2008-2010. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture. 13-18 September, Beijing, China. pp: 200-201.

Wilkinson, S.R., Grunes, D.L. and Sumner, M.E. (2000). Nutrient interactions in soil and plant nutrition. In: Handbook of soil science, (M. E. Sumner, Ed).  Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp: 89-112

Yimamu, F. (2008).  Silicon status and its relationship with major physic-chemical properties of soils in the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on silicon in Agriculture. 26-31 October, Wild Coast Sun, South Africa.pp: 107-108.

Yoseftabar, S. (2013). Investigate Panicle Structure Rice by application nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. International Journal Farming and Allied Sciences (IJFAS). Journal 13(2): 371-377.