ارزیابی پاسخ‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیکی ارقام گیاه آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)تحت رژیم های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد علوم و تحقیقات گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

3 گروه زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران.

4 گروه زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

برای تعیین نیاز آبی ارقام گیاه آفتابگردان آزمایشی در سال 1394 و 1395 با استفاده از طرح اسپیلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در ایستگاه زراعی اردستان اصفهان اجرا گردید. تیمارهای مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از: 3 رژیم آبیاری D1، D2 و D3 به‌ترتیب آبیاری پس از 60، 120 و 180 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A و پنج رقم ارقام آفتابگردان آذرگل، پروگرس، گابور،‌هایسان 25 و‌هایسان 36. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش ملایم، ارقام آذرگل و پروگرس دارای بیشترین میزان دوره پرشدن دانه، وزن هزار دانه، قطر ساقه و قطر طبق بودند. در شرایط تنش کمبود آب شدید ارقام پروگرس و گابور برتری محسوسی داشتند به­طوری ­که رقم پروگرس بیشترین میزان دوره پرشدن دانه، وزن هزار دانه، قطر ساقه و رقم گابور بیشترین میزان غنچه­دهی، گلدهی و قطر ساقه را داشتند. در بررسی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش ملایم مشاهده شد که در ارقام پروگرس و گابور میزان کلروفیل a، b، کاروتنوئیدها، کلروفیل کل و فتوسنتز خالص در مقایسه با سایر ارقام افزایش معنی­داری داشت. در شرایط تنش شدید نیز ارقام پروگرس و گابور در محتوای کلروفیل a، b و کلروفیل کل بر دیگر ارقام مورد بررسی برتری داشتند. در بررسی محتوای پرولین برگی نتایج نشـان داد که با افزایش شدت تنش محتوای پرولین برگی به‌صورت معنی­داری افزایش یافت. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی در شرایط تنش شدید، محتوای پرولین برگی در ارقام پروگرس و گابور نسبت به سایر ارقام افزایش معنی‌داری داشت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که ارقام آذرگل، گابور و پروگرس تحمل بیشتری نسبت به تنش کم­آبی در مقایسه با ارقام‌هایسان 25 و‌هایسان 36 دارد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of morphological, physiological, and photosynthetic responses of sunflower cultivars (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Amini 1
  • Hossein Ajam Noruzi 2
  • Abolfazl Faraji 3
  • Bahram Majd Nasiri 4
1 Department of Agriculture, Gorgan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
3 Horticulture and Agronomy Department, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
4 Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences Research Department, Esfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research, Education, and Extension Center (AREEO), Esfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to determine the water requirement of sunflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted during 2015-2016 at Ardestan Station, Isfahan. The experiment was carried out in a factorial randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included 3 irrigation regimes (D1: irrigation after 60 mm, D2: irrigation after 120 mm, D3: irrigation after 180 mm evaporation from small tub evaporation) and 5 sunflower cultivars (Azargol, Prograss, Gabur, Hysan 25, and Hysan 36). Results showed that under non-stress and moderate stress, Azargol and Prograss cultivars had the highest rate, in terms of seed filling period, the weight of 1000 grains, stem diameter, and head diameter. Under severe stress, Prograss and Gabur cultivars were remarkable, so that Prograss cultivar had the highest seed filling period, weight of 1000 grains, stem diameter, and Gabur cultivar had the highest number of budding, number of flowering, and stem diameter. In the study of physiological characteristics, results showed that under non-stress and moderate stress chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, and net-photosynthesis in cultivars Progerass and Gabor were significantly increased compared to other cultivars. In severe stress conditions, the Progress and Gabor cultivars in chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were superior to other cultivars. The results of proline analysis indicated that proline leaf content increased significantly with water stress. Among the cultivars under severe stress conditions, proline leaf content in Progerass and Gabor cultivars was significantly higher than other cultivars. The results of this study showed that Azargol, Gabor, and Progerass cultivars are more tolerant than Hysan 25 and Hysan 36.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Net-photosynthesis
  • Photosynthetic pigments
  • Physiological traits
  • Tolerant cultivars
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