ارزیابی اثر مقادیر کمپوست نیشکر و نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت‌دانه ای (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

نظر به تولید کمپوست نیشکر در شرکت‌های تولید نیشکرو لزوم استفاده از این تولیدات به عنوان کود آلی در جهت کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی، این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثر مقادیر کمپوست نیشکر و نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت‌دانه‌ای به مورد اجرا گذاشته شد. در این بررسی از کرت­های یک‌بار خرد شده درقالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل مقادیر کمپوست نیشکر در سه سطح صفر، 15 و 30 تن در هکتار به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره در سه سطح به‌صورت 80، 160 و 240 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر کمپوست نیشکر و نیتروژن بر تعداد ردیف در بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد پروتئین معنی­دار بود ولی اثر متقابل بین تیمارها بر کلیه صفات معنی‌دار نبود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه و عملکرد پروتئین درشرایط 30 تن در هکتار کمپوست نیشکر و 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و کمترین عملکرد دانه و عملکرد پروتئین در شرایط عدم مصرف کمپوست نیشکر و 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن حاصل شد. نتایج کلی آزمایش نشان داد که افزایش مصرف کمپوست نیشکر و نیتروژن به ترتیب تا 30 تن در هکتار و 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار در افزایش عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت تأثیر بسزایی دارد و می‌تواند مورد توجه زارعین و محققین قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of amount of sugarcane compost and nitrogen on quantitative and qualitative yield of corn (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Keyvan Marashi
  • Forogh Zadehomidi
Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Considering the production of sugarcane compost in some sugarcane companies and the need for using these products as organic fertilizers to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different amounts of sugarcane compost and nitrogen fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative yield of corn. In this study, split plots were used in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of different amounts of sugarcane compost at three levels of 0, 15, and 30 ton/ha as main plots and nitrogen fertilizer from urea source at three levels of 80, 160, and 240 kg/ha nitrogen as sub plots. Results showed that the effect of sugarcane compost and nitrogen on number of rows per ear, number of seeds per ear, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, and protein yield were significant but the effect of interaction between treatments on all traits were not significant. The maximum grain yield and protein yield were obtaied under 30 ton/ha sugar cane compost and 240 kg/ha nitrogen and the minimum grain yield and protein yield were in non-consuming sugarcane compost and 80 kg/ha nitrogen. In general, the results of experiment showed that increasing the application of sugarcane compost and nitrogen up to 30 ton/ha and 240 kg/ha, had a significant effect on quantitative and qualitative yield of corn and can be considered by farmers and researchers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Organic Fertilizer
  • Protein yield
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Urea fertilizer
Ahmad, R., Dawar, K.H., Iqbal, J. and Wahab, S. (2017). Effect of Sulfur on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Yield of Maize Crop. Advances in Environmental Biology. 10(11): 85-90.

Alikhani, H. and Savabeghi, G.R. (2006). Vermicomposting for sustainable agriculture. Tehran University Pub of Jahad. (In Persian)

Amujoyegbe, B.J., Opbode, J.T. and Olayinka, A. (2007). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of Zea mays and sorghum bicolour. Plant Science. 46: 1869-1873.

Arancon, N., Edwards, C.A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. and Metzger, J.D. (2004). Influence of Vermicomposts on Field Strawberries. I: Effects on Growth and Yields. Bioresearch Technology. 93:145-153.

Bagheri, R., Akbari, Gh.A., Kianmehr, M.H. and Tahmasbi Sarvestani, Z. (2013). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency in single grain cereal corn 704. Journal of Crop Science. 5 (8): 27-38. (In Persian)

Biari, A., Gholami, A. and Rahmani, H. )2008(. Growth promotion and enhanced nutrient uptake of maize (zea maysL.) by application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in arid region of Iran. Journal of Biological Sciences.8: 1015-1020.

 Chandrasekar, B.R., Ambrose, G. and Jayabalan, N.) 2005(. Influence of biofertilizers and nitrogen source level on the growth and yield of Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb) Link. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 1(2): 223-234.

Cheema, M.A., Malik, M.A., Hussain, A., Shah, S.  and Basra, A.M. (2001). Effects of time and rate of nitrogen and phosphorous application on the growth and the seed and oil yields of canola (Brassica nupus L.). Agronomy and Crop Scienses. 86: 103-110.

Chokan, R. (2013). Corn and its characteristics. First Printing, Agricultural Education Publishing, P. 446. (In Persian)

Faramarzi, A., Jamshidi, S. and Sayami, K. (2007). Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Resources and Quantities on Yield and Yield Components of Corn Cultivar Single Cros 704. Journal of Modern Agricultural Science. 1 (2): 66-73. (In Persian)

Hamidi, A., Khodabandeh, N. and Dabagh Mohammadi Nasab, A. (2002). Effect of Plant Density and Different Nitrogen Levels on Grain Yield and Some Appearance Characteristics of Two Corn Hybrids. Iranian Agriculture Sciences. 31: 567-579. (In Persian)

Hassanzadeh, R., Chavoshi, S., Madani, H. and Asgari, A. (2009). Evaluation of irrigation management and manure application in order to increase water use efficiency in corn of single cultivar cross 704. Recent Agricultural Findings. 2(3): 225-237. (In Persian)

Jalali, A.H., Bahrani, M.J. and Karimian, N.A. (2012). Effect of Plant Conservation Management, Composting and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Corn Doubler Cultivar 370. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 13(2): 336-351. (In Persian)

Janzen, H. and Kucey, R. (1988). C, N, and S mineralization of crop residues as influenced by crop species and nutrient regime. Plant and Soil. 106: 34- 41.

Karimi, H., Mazaheri, D., Peyghambari, A. and Mirabzadeh Ardakani, M. (2012). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer application on yield and yield components of Single corn grain 704. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 13: 611-627. (In Persian)

Keeney, D.R. and Nelson, D.W. (1982). Nitrogen in organic forms. PP. 643-698. In:A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (Eds.), Method of soil analysis. Part II.

Kochaki, A. and Khalghani, G. (2000). Sustainable Agriculture in Mediterranean Region. Mashhad University press. 284 p. (In Persian)

Kushwaha, J.S. and Chandel, A.S. (1997). Effect of nitrogen on yield attributes and Quality Of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) inter cropped with soybean. Indian Journal Agronomy. 42(2): 205-209.

Mahbubul Alam, M., Mainul Basher, M.D., Karim, A. andRafiquel Islam, M. (2003). Effect of rate of nitrogen fertilizer and population density on the Yield and Yield attributes of maize (Zeamays). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 6(20): 1770-1773.

Mahmoudi, M., Rosta, M.J., Mohammadnia, M. and Zare, A. (2012). Evaluation of the effect of vermicompost and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of corn, 6th National Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture, Khorasgan, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch. (In Persian)

Mandal, A., Patra, K., Singh, D., Swarup, A. and Ebhin Masto R. (2012). Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages. Bioresource Technology. 98: 3585-3592.

Manna, M.C., Jha, S., Ghosh, P.K. and Acharya, C.L. (2003). Comparative efficacy of three epigic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition. Bioresource Technology. 88: 197-206.

Mir, M. (2014). Effect of green manure on soil physical properties, yield and yield components of sesame in Sistan region. MSc thesis. University of Zabol, Zabol. Iran. (In Persian)

Mirzashahi, K. and Saadat, S. (2011). Effect of different organic materials on canola yield and some soil characteristics in northern Khuzestan. Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Sciences). 24 (1): 21-29. (In Persian).

Mirzashahi, K.  and  Bazargan, K. (2015). Organic soil management. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Soil and Water Research Institute. Technical Journal.  No. 535. (In Persian).

Mohammadi Aghdam, S., Yeganehpoor, F., Kahrariyan, B. and Shabani, E. (2014). Effect of different urea levels on yield and yield components of corn 704. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(2): 2014: 300-305.

Mohammad Khani, A. and Roozbehani, A. (2016). Management of Vermicompost Fertilizer and Fertilizer Nano Fertilizer in Improving the Function of Maize. Scientific Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 7(23): 124-131.

Mohammadian, M. and Malakouti, M.J. (2002). Evaluation the effect of two compost types on physical and chemical soil characteristics and corn yield. Journal of Soil and Water  Science. 16:143-150. (In Persian)

Monjazi, H., Moradi Talavat, M.R., Sayadat, A., Kochak Zadeh, A. and Hamdi, H. (2015). Effect of sugarcane filtering, chemical fertilizer and fertilizer on yield and quality of canola and some soil characteristics.  Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture).  16 (2): 445-457. (In Persian)

Moradi Telavat, M.R. and Siyadat, A. (2013). Growth and nitrogen use efficiency response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) to increased nitrogen levels. Journal of Crops Improvement, 13(2): 111- 124. (In Persian)

Najafi Nejad, H., Javaheri, M.A., Ravari, S. and Azad Shahraki, F. (2010). Effect of crop rotation and wheat residue management on grain yield of corn crossover 704 and some soil characteristics. Journal of Cultivation of Seed and Seeds. 25 (3): 245-258. (In Persian)

Namazi, E., Lack, S. and Fatahi Nejad, E. (2015). Effect of vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer application on the various functioning of maize seeds. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 3(3): 263–268.

Qasr al-Dashti, A., Baluchi, H.R., Yadavi, A.R. and Mousavi, S.Y. (2013). Effect of urban waste compost and nitrogen on quantitative and qualitative yield of sweet corn forage. Herbal Products (Scientific Agricultural Journal). 35 (1): 43-54. (In Persian)

Reed, A.J.,. Sigletary, G. W., Shussler, J.R. and Williamson, D.R. (1998). Shading effects on dry matter andnitrogen partitioning, kernel number and yield of maize. Crop Science. 28: 819-825. 1988.

Sadeghi, H. and Kazemeini, A.R. (2011). Effect of crop residue management and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barley cultivars under dry land conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Science. 13 (3): 436-451. (In Persian)

Sadeghi, H., Bahrani, M.J., Ronaghi, A., Raufat, M.H., Kamgar-Haghighi A.A. and Assad, M.T. (2009). The influence of different amounts of residues and nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of two varieties of dry land wheat. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 40(2): 1-9.

Sarkamarian, F., Salehi Jouzani, G. and Moradi, F. (2015). Fast production of enriched biocompost from sugarcane baggase using biotechnological process. Journal of Crop Biotechnology. 5 (9): 49-64.

Simpson, E., Cooke, R.J. and Davies, D.D. (1989). Measurement of protein in leaves of Zea mays using (H3) acetic anhydride and tritiated water. Plant Physiology. 67: 1214–1219.

Singer W.J., Sally, S.D. and Meek, D.W. (2007). Tillage and compost effects on corn growth, nutrient accumulation, and grain yield. Agronomy Journal. 99: 80–87.

Taghizadeh, R. and Seyed Sharifi, R. (2012). Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Yield Components in Maize Cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Water and Soil Science. 15 (57): 209-217. (In Persian)

Zebarth, B.J., Shcard, R.W. and Howblin, J. (1992). Influence of rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization application on yield and quality of hard red Winter Wheat in Ontario. Canada Journal Plant Science. 72: 13-19.