اثر بسترهای مختلف کشت بر برخی صفات فیزیکوشیمیایی گیاه همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اردکان، یزد

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اردکان، یزد

چکیده

خشکی یکی از مهم‌ترین تنش‌های محیطی است که موجب کاهش تولید و عملکرد گیاه خصوصا در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌گردد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر کاربرد برخی مواد آلی اصلاحی در خاک جهت افزایش مقاومت گیاه همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) به تنش خشکی بود. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. تیمار‌ها شامل شش ماده اصلاحی (شاهد (فقط خاک)، یک و دو گرم نانو کود پتاسیم به ازای یک کیلوگرم خاک، 30 درصد حجمی گلدان کوکوپیت، پالم پیت و بقایای گیاه روناس) در سه سطح خشکی (40، 60 و 80% ظرفیت مزرعه) بودند. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌ آمده با افزایش سطح تنش خشکی وزن تر و خشک گل و ریشه به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. در حالی‌که فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان وزن تر و خشک گل و ریشه در گیاهان تیمار شده با بقایای روناس حاصل شد. همچنین کم‌ترین وزن تر و خشک ریشه و گل در تمام سطوح خشکی در گیاهان تیمار شده با پالم پیت به‌دست آمد. گیاهانی که با پالم پیت تیمار شده بودند در هر سه سطح تنش خشکی وارد فاز زایشی و تولید گل نشدند. وزن تر گل با وزن خشک گل، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و جذب فسفر همبستگی معنی‌دار نشان داد. به‌طورکلی، نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که بقایای گیاه روناس در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها، به خوبی توانست مقاومت گیاه همیشه‌بهار را به تنش خشکی افزایش دهد و می-تواند به عنوان بستر کشت جدید معرفی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different media cultures on some growth characteristics of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Bahrampour 1
  • Maryam Dehestani-Ardakani 2
  • Mostafa Shirmardi 2
  • Jalal Gholamnezhad 2
1 M.Sc. student, Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought is one of important environmental stresses that cause decreasing of production and yield in arid and semi-arid areas. Aim of this study was using of some amendment compounds in soil to increase marigold plant (Calendula officinalis L.) resistance to drought stress. Experiments were performed in factorial according a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatment were consisted of six amendment compounds (control (only soil), 1 and 2 g/kg nano- potassium fertilizer, 30% of vase volume cocopeat, 30% of vase volume palm peat and 30% of vase volume madder plant residues) in three levels of drought stress (40, 60 and 80% of field capacity). According to the results by increasing the drought level, fresh and dry weight of flower and root significantly decreased. While peroxidase enzyme activity significantly increased. The highest fresh and dry weight of flower and root was obtained in plants were treated by madder plant residues. The lowest fresh and dry weight of flower and root in all drought levels obtained in plants were treated by palm peat. Plants were treated by palm peat in all three levels of drought did not show reproductive phase and flower. Fresh weight of flower had significant correlation by dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of root and phosphorus uptake. Generally, results showed that madder plant residues in compare to other treatments increased marigold resistance to drought stress and could be introduce as a suitable organic compound of media culture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Media culture
  • Palm peat
  • Madder Plant
  • Growth characteristics
  • Cocopeat
  • Nano-potassium
Ahmadi, A., Emam, Y. and Pessarakli, M. (2010). Biochemical changes in maize seedling exposed to drought stress conditions at different nitrogen levels. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 33: 541-556. (In Persian).

Ahmadikhah, A. (2009). Hirt, H. Shinozaki, K. plants reaction to abiotic environmental stresses. Gorgan University Press. 326 pp. (In Persian).

Alizadeh, A. (2009). Water, soil and plant relation. 9th edition, Astane Godse Razavi Press, 484 pp. (In Persian).

Ariano, S., Bartolomeo, D., Cristos, X. and Andras. M. (2005). Antioxidant defenses in olive trees during drought stress: changes in activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Functional Plant Biology. 32: 45-53.

Awad, A.S., Edward, D.G. and Campbell, L.C. (1990). Phosphorus enhancement of salt tolerance of tomato. Crop Science. 30: 123-128.

Bettaieb, I., Zakhama, N., Aidi-Wannes, N., Kchouk, M.E. and Marzouk, B. (2009). Water deficit effects on Salvia officinalis fatty acids and essential oils composition. Scientia Horticulturae. 120: 271-275.

Bhatt, R.M. and Srinivasa-Rao, N.K. (2005). Influence of pod load on response of okra to water stress. Indian Journal Plant Physiology. 10: 54-59.

Bremner, J.M. (1996). Nitrogen total. PP. 1085-1122. In: Klute, A., et al. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part III, 3rd Ed., ASA, Madison, WI.

Dargahi, Y., Asghari, A., Shokrpour, M. and Rasoulzadeh, A. (2012). Effect of water deficit stress on root morphological characters in sesame cultivars. Electronically Journal of Crop Production. 5 (4): 151-172. (In Persian).

Dehghan, H., Alizadeh, A., Esmaeili, K. and Nemati, S.H. (2015). Growth of root, yield and parameters of yield in tomato under drought stress, Journal of Water Research in Agriculture. 29 (2): 169-179. (In Persian).

Doagouie, A.R. and Ghazanfari Moghadam,  A. (2015). The Application of date palm fibers as growth medium and optimization of moisture content and holding capacity by response surface methodology. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 5 (4): 1-14. (In Persian).

Fatemy, F. and Evans, K. (1986). Effects of Globodera rostochiensis and water stress on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of potatoes. Revue Nematology. 9: 181-184.

Heidari, M. (2007). Plants reactions to environmental stresses. Aras rayane press. 96 pp. (In Persian).

Heidari, M., Miri, H.R. and Minaei, A. (2014). Antioxidant enzymes activity and biochemical compounds of Borago officinalis L. in reaction to drought treatments and humic acid. Environmental stresses in Crop Science. 6 (2): 159-170. (In Persian).

Jafarzadeh, L., Omidi, H. and Bostani, A.A. (2013). Effect of drought stress and bio-fertilizer on flower yield, photosynthesis pigments and proline content of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 29 (3): 666-680. (In Persian).

Kanai, S., Ohkura, K., Adu-Gyamfi, J., Mohapatra, P., Saneoka, H. and Fujita, K. (2007). Depression of sink activity precedes the inhibition of biomass production in tomato plants subjected to potassium deficiency stress. Journal of Experimental Botany. 58: 2917–2928.

Khalighi, A. and Padasht, M. (2000). The effects of different media cultures of bark of tree, tea residue, rice and Azola as alternatives of peat in growth of dwarf marigold (Tagetes patula cv. Golden Boy). Journal of Iranian agricultural science. 3(31): 565-576. (In Persian).

Kumar, K. and Goh, K.M. (2000). Crop residues and management practices: effects
on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield, and nitrogen recovery. Advances in agronomy. 68: 197-319.

Lebaschy, M. H. and Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E. (2004). Growth indices of some medicinal plants under different water stresses. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 20(3): 249-261. (In Persian).

Liu, H.S., Li, F.M. and Xu, H. (2004). Deficiency of water can enhance root respiration rate of drought-sensitive but not drought-tolerance spring wheat. Agriculture Water Management. 64: 41-48.

Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press. London, 549-561.

Matsui, T. and Singh, B.B. (2003). Root characteristics in cowpea related to drought tolerance at the seedling stage. American journal of Experimental Agriculture. 39: 29-38.

Najafinezhad, A., Javaheri, M.A., Gheibi, M. and Rostamia, M.A. (2007). Influence of Tillage Practices on the grain yield of Maize and some soil properties in Maize-wheat cropping system of Iran. Journal of Agriculture and Social Science. 3(3): 1813-2235.

Omidbeigi, R. (2009). Production and processing of medicinal plants. entesharat gods Razavi. Volume 2. 5th edition. 483 pp. (In Persian).

Oppenheimer, H.R. (1960). Adaptation to drought: Xeromorphysm in plant-water relationships in arid and semiarid conditions. Arid Zone Research journal. (UNESCO, Paris). 15: 105-138.

Petropoulos, S.A., Dimitra, D., Polissiou, M.G. and Passam, H.C. (2008). The effect of water deficit stress on the growth, yield and composition of essential oils of parsley. Scientia Horticulturae. 115: 393-397.

Razi, H. and Assad, M.T.(1999). Comparison of selection criteria in normal and limited irrigation in sunflower. Euphytica. 105: 83-90.

Rhoades, J.D. (1996). Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. PP. 417-436. In: Sparks, D. L., et al. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part III, 3rd Ed., ASA, Madison, WI.

Ritchie, S.W., Nguyan, H.T. and Holaday, A.S. (1990). Leaf Water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science. 30: 105-111.

Samiei, L., Khalighi, A., Kafi, M., Samavat., S. and Arghavani, M. (2005). An Investigation of Substitution of Peat Moss With Palm Tree Celluloid Wastes in Growing Aglaonema (Aglaonema Commutatum Cv. Silver Queen). Iranian, Journal of Agricultural Science. 36(2): 503-510. (In Persian).

Sodaeizadeh, H. and Mansouri, F. (2014). Effects of drought stress on dry matter accumulation, nutrient concentration and soluble carbohydrate of Salvia macrosiphon as a medicinal plant. Arid Biome Scientific and Research Journal. 4 (1): 1-9. (In Persian).

Sodaiizadeh, H., Shamsian, M., Tajamoliyan, M., Mirmohammadi Meybodi, S.A.M. and Hakimzade, M.A. (2017). Investigation of the some physiological characteristics of Thymus fedtschenko under drought stress. Environmental stresses in crop science. 9: 423-427. (In Persian).

Tajamoliyan, M., Irannezhad Parizi, M., Malekinezhad, H., Rad, M. and Sodaiizadeh, H. (2011). Assessing water relationships of Fortuynia bungei Boiss.in dry climate, MSc Dissertation, Faculty of Natural Resources & Desert University of Yazd, Iran. 115 p. (In Persian).

Urrestarazu, M., Salas, M.C., Padilla, M.I., Moreno, J., Elorrieta, M.A. and Arrasco, A. (2001). Evaluation of different composts from horticultural crop residues and their uses in greenhouse soilless cropping. Acta Horticulturae. 549:147-152.