بررسی تاثیر غلظت‌های مختلف عصاره جلبک دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) بر رشد، عملکرد و صفات بیوشیمیایی کدوی تلخ (Momordica charantia L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزشی علوم باغبانی و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، ادویه‏ای و عطری. دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر محلول‌پاشی عصاره جلبک بر رشد، عملکرد و صفات بیوشیمایی گیاه کدوی تلخ (کارلا)، آزمایشی در سال 1395 در قالب طرح بلوک‌‏های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل چهار غلظت عصاره جلبک (0، 1.5، 3 و 4.5 میلی‌لیتر بر لیتر) در طی سه مرحله محلول پاشی (قبل از گلدهی، زمان گلدهی و زمان تشکیل میوه) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که  اثر عصاره جلبک بر اجزا برگ معنی‏دار بود، بطوریکه با افزایش غلظت تیمار، وزن تر و خشک و سطح برگ افزایش یافت. عصاره جلبک علاوه بر اجزا برگ، بر رنگیزه‏های آن (کلروفیل a، b، کلروفیل کل و کارتنوئید) نیز تاثیر گذار بود. بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a، b، کلروفیل کل و کارتنوئید به‌ترتیب 77/4، 66/5، 03/11، 52/2 میلی‌گرم برگرم وزن تر برگ در تیمار 5/4 میلی‌لیتر بر لیتر عصاره جلبک و کمترین میزان این صفات در شاهد مشاهده شد. همچنین نتایج، نشان‌دهنده تاثیر معنی‏دار عصاره جلبک برصفات کمی بوته بود، به‌طوری که بیشترین طول بوته و تعداد شاخه‌های جانبی در بالاترین غلظت عصاره جلبک و کمترین آنها در شاهد بدست آمد. عصاره جلبک اجزا عملکرد (وزن، طول و قطر میوه، تعداد میوه در بوته وعملکرد محصول) و صفات بیوشیمایی میوه (فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدان و فنل کل) را نیز تحت تاثیر خود قرار داد، بطوریکه بیشترین عملکرد محصول(4526 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، میزان فنول کل (74/8 میلی‏گرم گالیک اسید در 100 گرم ماده خشک) و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (6/69 درصد) در غلظت عصاره جلبک (5/4 میلی‌لیتر بر لیتر) حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، به نظر می‏رسد، استفاده از غلظت 5/4 میلی‌لیتر بر لیتر عصاره جلبک، می‏تواند نقش موثری بر صفات کمی و کیفی گیاه کدوی تلخ داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different levels of seaweed extract on the growth, yield and biochemical characteristics of bitter squash (Momordica charantia L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammed Hossein Aminifard 1
  • Sekene Khandan 2
1 Assistant Prof, Department of Horticultural Science and Special Plants Regional Research Center, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand
2 Masters Student Horticultural Science (Medicnal plants), College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

The effects of foliar spraying of seaweed extract on the growth, yield and biochemical characteristics of bitter squash plant (Carla) were evaluated under field conditions. Treatments were of four levels of seaweed extract (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 in thousand) during three stages of foliar spraying (before flowering, flowering and fruit set time). The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications at the Research station of Faculty of Agriculture University of Birjand during growing season of 2016. Leaf growth indices were influenced by seaweed extract treatments, so that with increasing treatment levels, increased fresh and dry weight and leaf area. The seaweed extract improved photosynthetic pigments (chl a, chl b, total chl and carotenoid). The highest amount of chl a, b, total chl and carotenoid (4.77, 5.66, 11.03, 2.52 mg. g-1f.w) were obtained in plants treated with 4.5 in thousand seaweed extract, while the lowest values were recorded in the control. Results showed that seaweed extract improved on quantitative characteristics of bush, so that the highest bush length and number of lateral branches were obtained at the highest level of the seaweed extract, while the lowest value were recorded in the control. Application of different levels of seaweed extract has a positive effect on the yield indices (weight, length and diameter of the fruit, number of fruits and yield) and biochemical characteristics of fruit (antioxidants activity and total phenol). The highest yield (4526 kg. ha-1), total phenol (8.74 mg GAE/100g) and antioxidant activity (69.68%) were obtained in plants treated with 4.5 in thousand seaweed extract. Generally, the findings of current study revealed that the use of 4.5 in thousand seaweed extract had strong impact on qualitative characteristics of bitter squash in this study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant Activity
  • Carla
  • Chlorophyll
  • Quality performance
  • substance
Arnon, A.N. (1967). Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal, 23:112-121.

Blunden, G. (1972). The effects of aqueous seaweed extract as a fertilizer additive, The Seventh International Seaweed Symposium, Tokyo University Press, Japan, 584-589.

Boroumand, Z., Hatami, H. and Tukloo, M. (2015). The effect of spraying of food elements and seaweed extract on some traits vegetative and tomato performance. Second National Conference on the Application of Modern Science and Technology in Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, 3-18.

Cai, Y.Z., Sun, M., Xing, J., Luo, Q. and Corke,H. (2006). Structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Life Science, 28:72-88.

Chapman, V.J. and Chapman, D. J. (1980). Seaweeds and their uses. 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall, London, 334 pp.

Cho, M., Lee, H.S., Kang, I.J., Won, M.H. and You, S. (2011). Antioxidant properties of extract and fractions from Enteromorpha prolifera, a type of green seaweed. Food Chemistry, 127: 999-1006.

Choudhary, S., Chhabra, G., Sharma, D., Vashishta, A., Ohri, S. and Dixit, A. (2012). Comprehensive evaluation of anti hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012:10.

Choulwar, S.B., Dhutmal, R.R., Madrapa, I.A. and Joshi, B.M. (2005). Genetic variability for yield and yield related traits in F2 population of safflower. Journal of Maharashtra Agriculture Universities, 30: 114-116.

Crisan, S., Campeanu, G. and Halmagean, L. (2008). Study of Momordica charantia L. species grown on the specific conditions of Romania’s western part. Journal of Vegetable Growing, 32: 425-428.

Del Poso, A., Perez, P., Gutierrez, D., Alonso, A., Morcuende, R. and Martinez-Carrasco, R. (2007). Gas exchange acclimation to elevated CO2 in upper-sunlit and lower-shaded canopy leaves in relation to nitrogen acquisition and partitioning in wheat grown in field chambers. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53: 371-380.

Harinantenaina, L., Tanaka, M. and Takaoka, S. (2006). Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 54: 1017-1021.

 Heidari, M. and Mobasri-Moghadam, M. (2012). Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 11: 129-133.

Karimi, A., Tajbakhsh, M., Amirniya, R. and Eivazi, A. (2013). The effect of some plant growth inducers on yield and yield components of Corn. Journal of Plant Production Research, 20(2):161-177.

Kingman, A.R. and Moore. J. (1982). Isolation, purification and quantification of several growth regulating substance in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina, 25: 149-153.

Mahlouji, M. and efyoni, D. (2005). Study of growth and yield analysis of barley genotypes. Research and Development in Agriculture and Horticulture, 63: 2-14.

Mamelona, J., Pelletier, E., Girard-Lalancette, K., Legault, J., Karboune, S., and Kermasha, S. (2011). Antioxidants in digestive tracts and gonads of green urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis). Food Biochemistry, 24: 179–183.

Roth, G., and Goyne, P. (2004). Measuring plant water status. Section 3: Irrigation management of cotton, 164pp.

Salamat Bakhsh, M., Toube, A., Gholipouri, A., and Hasanzadeh Ghort Tepee, A. (2012). Investigating the spraying of seaweed extract (marmarin) on yield and yield components of second cultivar of castor varieties in west azar baijan (Urmia) area. Complete Articles of the National Conference on Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture and the Environment, 1-8.

      Sharifi, N., Hojjatoleslamy, M., and Jafari, M. (2015). Study of qualitative characteristics of saffron cultivated in different regions of Iran. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 4: 235-240.

Shokouhi Far, Y. (2016). Application of algae in agriculture. Second International Conference on Sustainable Development, Solutions and Challenges Focusing on Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Tourism, Iran (Tabriz), 23-25 Feb: 3-4.

Shukla, Sh., Mehta, A., Bajpai, V.K., and Shukla, S. (2009). In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana L. Bert. Food Chemical Toxicology, 47(23):38-43.

Sibi, M., Khazaee, H., and Nezami, A. (2017). Effect of concentration, time and method of consumption of seaweed extract on some morphological characteristics of root and aerial parts of safflower. Quarterly Journal of Physiology of Crops, 29:7-16.

Sibi, M., Mirza Khani, M., and Gamariyan, M. (2013). The effect of water stress, consumption of zeolite and salicylic acid on the quantity and quality of safflower oil (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Agronomy Research on the Sides of the Desert, 9(2): 153-169.

Soleimani, S., Yousef Zadi, M., Moein, S., Amrollahi Biuki, N., Keshavarz, M., and Asliyan, H. (2016). Evaluation of antioxidant activity and determination of polyphenolic content of marine tetaya Echinometra mathaei in Persian Gulf. Journal of Biotechnology, 6(2): 1-8.

Spinelli, F., Fiori, G., and Noferini, M. (2010). A novel type of seaweed extract as a natural alternative to the use of iron chelates in strawberry production. Scientia Horticulture, 125(3): 263-269.

Sunarpi, A., Kurnianingsih, R., Julisaniah, N.I., and Nikmatullah, A. (2010). Effect of seaweed extracts on growth and yield of rice plants. Nusantara Bioscience, 2(2): 73-77.

Thambiraj, J., Lingakumar, K., and Paulsamy, S. (2012). Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) prepared from Sargassum wightii and Hypnea musciformis on the growth and biochemical constituents of the pulse. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(1): 65-70.

Tori-Hudson, N. (2007). Bitter Melon: A review of its indications, efficacy, and safety. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60: 356-359.

Turkmen, N., Sari, F., and Veliglu, Y.S. (2005). The effect of cooking methods on total phenolic and  antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry,. 93: 713- 718.

Young, Kil. H., Seong, ES., Ghimire, B.K., Chung, I.M., Kwon, S.S., and Goh, E.J. (2009). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude sorghum extract. Food Chemistry, 115: 1234-12349.