تاثیر تنش کم‌آبی و کاربرد هیومیک و سالیسیلیک اسید بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کم‌آبی و کاربرد هیومیک اسید و سالیسیلیک اسید بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی آبیاری در سه سطح (33، 67 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی) و فاکتور فرعی نیز کاربرد هیومیک و سالیسیلیک اسید در 4 سطح (کاربرد هیومیک اسید، کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید، کاربرد توام هیومیک و سالیسیلیک اسید و عدم کاربرد) بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر آبیاری بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد معنی‌دار شد، اما اثر هیومیک اسید و سالیسیلیک اسید بر شاخص کلروفیل، هدایت روزنه‌ای، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار گردید. اثر متقابل فاکتورها نیز بر هیچ یک از صفات معنی‌دار نشد. با کاهش تامین نیاز آبی ذرت از 100 به 33 درصد، شاخص کلروفیل، هدایت روزنه‌ای، تعداد بلال در متر مربع، تعداد ردیف در بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، تعداد دانه در بلال و وزن هزار دانه به ترتیب 6/15، 6/35، 2/41، 1/14، 9/33، 8/61 و 40 درصد و به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک در شرایط تامین 100 درصد نیاز آبی از برتری معنی‌دار به ترتیب 9/3 و 4/2 برابری در مقایسه با تیمار تامین 33 درصد نیاز آبی برخوردار بود. کاربرد هیومیک اسید، سالیسیلیک اسید و مصرف توام سالیسیلیک اسید و هیومیک اسید به ترتیب افزایش معنی‌دار 5/7، 7/7 و 9/8 درصدی شاخص کلروفیل، 5/22، 6/22 و 7/20 درصدی وزن هزار دانه و 5/26، 5/18 و 7/21 درصدی عملکرد دانه را نسبت به تیمار عدم کاربرد این مواد باعث گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تامین 100 درصد نیاز آبی و کاربرد مستقل سالیسیلیک اسید و هیومیک اسید می‌تواند سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه ذرت شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of water deficit stress and application of humic and salicylic acid on physiological traits, yield and yield components of corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Moosavi 1
  • hossain Ragh ara 2
1 Associate Prof. of Department of Agronomy, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of water deficit and the application of humic and salicylic acid on physiological traits, yield and yield components of corn, an experiment was carried out as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad Universityof Birjand, Iran in 2014. The main factor was irrigation in three levels (supply of 33, 67 and 100% water requirement) and the sub-factor was humic and salicylic acid application in 4 levels (application of humic acid, salicylic acid, humic + salicylic acid and no application). The results of variance analysis showed that irrigation significantly affected traits of physiological, seed yield components and yield but humic acid and salicylic acid application significantly affected chlorophyle index, stomatal conductivity, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. Also, interaction effect of irrigation and humic acid and salicylic acid was no significant on measured traits. Chlorophyle index, stomatal conductivity, ear number per m2, row number per ear, seed number per row, seed number per ear and 1000-seed weight significantly decreased by 15.6, 35.6, 41.2, 14.1, 33.9, 61.8 and 40%, respectively with the decreas of water requirement from 100 to 33%. Seed yield and biological yield in treatment of 100% water requirement supply, had significantly superiority 3.9 and 2.4 times, respectively as compared with treatment of 33% water requirement supply. Chlorophyle index by 7.5, 7.7 and 8.9%, 1000-seed weight by 22.5, 26.6 and 20.7% and seed yield by 26.5, 18.5 and 21.7%, significantly increased with application of humic acid, salicylic acid and humic acid + salicylic acid respectively as compaed with no application of this acids. The results showed that supply of 100% water requirement and independent application of humic acid or salicylic acid can increase seed yield of corn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Corn
  • Humic acid
  • low irrigation
  • Salicylic Acid
  • Stomatal conductivity
  • Yield
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