بررسی کاربرد فسفر از منابع مختلف کودهای شیمیایی، زیستی و نانو به همراه محلول‌پاشی محرک رشد بر برخی شاخص‌های رشد، قندهای محلول و نیکوتین توتون (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سنندج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سنندج، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سنندج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی کاربرد فسفر از منابع مختلف کودهای شیمیایی، زیستی و نانو و محلول‌پاشی محرک رشد بر خواص کمی و کیفی توتون آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1396-1395 در شهرستان مریوان به اجرا درآمد. آزمایش به صورت طرح یکبار خرد شده یا اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار صورت گرفت. در این آزمایش کرت اصلی شامل پنج سطح کودی: شاهد، سوپرفسفات تریپل، فسفر بارور2، نانوفسفر، میکس (50 درصد سوپر فسفات تریپل + فسفربارور2+ نانوفسفر) و عامل فرعی محلول‌پاشی محرک رشد در دو سطح: عدم کاربرد (آب مقطر) و کاربرد محرک رشد فرسلون در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که طول پابرگ، عرض لچه برگ، وزن خشک کمر برگ، درصد نیکوتین و درصد قندهای محلول کمربرگ تحت تاثیر کوددهی اختلاف معنی‌داری نشان دادند. در این آزمایش بیشترین طول پابرگ تحت تاثیر کود فسفر بارور و بیشترین عرض لچه برگ تحت تاثیر کود فسفربارور و کود نانوفسفر حاصل گردید. همچنین میزان افزایش وزن برگ در کود فسفر بارور، سوپر فسفات تریپل، نانوفسفر و مخلوط کودهای مذکور در مقایسه با شاهد به ترتیب: 53/11، 04/10، 58/9 و 99/3 درصد بود. همچنین کمترین درصد نیکوتین و بیشترین درصد قندهای محلول برگ در کمربرگ و تحت تاثیر کاربرد مخلوط کود سوپرفسفات تریپل، کود فسفربارور و کود نانو حاصل گردید. در این آزمایش تعداد برگ، طول پابرگ و کمربرگ، عرض لچه برگ، وزن خشک برگ، قیمت برگ و درصد نیکوتین در چین‌های پابرگ و لچه برگ و درصد قندهای محلول در چین پابرگ توتون تحت تأثیر محرک رشد فرسلون افزایش معنی‌داری نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of phosphorous from different chemical, biological and nano-fertilizer sources along with spraying of growth promoting substances on some growth indices, soluble sugars, and nicotine of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yadgar Rezaؘie jani 1
  • Babak Pasari 2
  • Asad Rokhzadi 1
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Assistant Prof, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to investigate application of phosphorous from different chemical, biological and, nano-fertilizers along with spraying of Farselon growth promoting substance on some growth indices, soluble sugars, and nicotine of tobacco in Marivan during 2015- 2016. The experiment was carried out using a split plots and a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor consisted of five kinds of fertilizer including control (no fertilization), triple superphosphate, phosphate biological fertilizer (Barvar-2), Nano-phosphate, and combined fertilization (50% Triple superphosphate+ phosphate biological fertilizer + Nanophosphate). The subplot included spraying Farselon growth promotion substance at two levels including: control (distilled water) and Farselon growth promotion substance. Results showed that lower leaves side length, upper leaves side width, middle leaves side dry weight, middle leaves side soluble sugars and nicotine percent were affected significantly by fertilization. The highest lower leaves side lengths were achieved by phosphate biological fertilizer and the highest upper leaves side widths were recorded under phosphate biological fertilizer and nano-phosphate treatment. In addition, the highest middle leaf side dry weight increased in comparison with control as: 11.53, 10.04, 9.58, and 3.99 percent in biological fertilizer, Triple superphosphate, nano-phosphate, and combined fertilization as compared with the control. The lowest nicotine and highest soluble sugars percent were observed in the middle leaves side by combined fertilization. In this study, leaf number, leaf length in lower and middle leaf side, leaf width in upper leaf side, leaf dry weight, cash and nicotine percent in lower and upper leaf side and leaf soluble sugars percent in lower leaf side increased significantly under Farselon treatment.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fertilizer
  • Hormone
  • Nicotine
  • Soluble sugars
  • Tobacco
Alijani, M., Amini Dehaghi, M., Malboobi, M.A., Zahedi, M. and Modares Sanavi, S.A.M. (2011). The effect of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer together with phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar 2) on yield, essential oil amount and chamazulene percentage of Matricaria recutita L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 27 (3): 450-459. (In Persian).

Ballari, M.H. (2005). Tabaco Virginia: Aspectos ecofisiológicos de la nutrición en condiciones de cultivo. Editorial Alejandro Graziani, Cordoba, Argentina.

Bayati, F. (2015). Study the effect of amounts and time of application of nano iron fertilizer on performance and yield components of rapeseed. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12 (4): 805-812. (In Persian).

Belimov, A. A., Dodd, I.C., Safronova, V.I., Hontzeas, N. and Davies, W.J. (2007). Pesudomonas brassicacearum strain AM3 containing 1-minocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase can show both pathogenic and growth promoting properties in its interaction with tomato. Journal of Experimental Botany. 58(6):1485-1495.

Bozhinova, R. (2016). Heavy metal concentrations in soil and tobacco plants following long-term phosphorus fertilization. Bulgarian Journal of Agriculture Science. 22: 16-20.

CORESTA (Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco). (2005). Determination of nicotine in tobacco and tobacco products by gas chromatography analysis. 9 page.

Darzi, M., Ghalavand, M.T., Sefidkan, F. and Rejali, F. (2008). The effect of mycorrhizae, vermicompost and biophosphate on essence quantity and quality of fennel (Foeniculum vulgar Mill). Iranian Journal of Medicine and Aromatic Plants. 24(4): 396-413. (In Persian).

Fehling, F. (1849). Die quantitative Bestimmung von Zucker und Stärkmehl mittelst Kupfervitriol. Annalen der
Chemie und Pharmacie. 72 (1): 106–113.

Ghasem Khanloo, Z., Nasrollah Zadeh, AS., Alizadeh, A. and Haji Hasani, N. (2009). Effect of fertilizer on performance and yield components of potato cultivars in chaldoran region. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research. 1 (3): 49-45. (In Farsi).

Ghobady, M., Jahanbin, S., Owliaie, HR., Motalebifard, R. and Parvizi, K. (2012). The Effect of phosphorus biofertilizers on yield and phosphorus uptake in potato. Iranian Journal of water and soil knowledge. 23 (2): 125- 138. (In Persian).

Gholizadeh, A.GH., Dordipour, E. and Mahdavi, A.R. (2013). Determining the critical level of potassium in the soils of tobacco farms of Golestan and Mazandaran Provinces. Iranian Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production. 3(1): 215-229. (In Persian).

Heidarian, A., Kordi, H., Mostafavi, A. and Amini Mashhadi, F. (2012). Evaluation of iron and zinc spraying on soybean yield and yield components in different stages of growth. Iranian Journal of Agricultural biotechnology and sustainable development. 3(9): 189 -197. (In Persian).

Huang, H., Zhang, Q. and Zhao, L. (2010). Lutein plays a key role in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus in Arabdipsis under severe oxidative stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 42: 2765-2774.

Jiao, W., Chen, W., Chang, A.C. and Page, A.L. (2012). Environ-mental risks of trace elements associated with long-term phos-phate fertilizers applications: A review. Environment Pollution Journal. 168:44-53.

Karaivazoglou, N., Papakost, D. and Divanidis, S. (2007). Influence of liming form of phosphor fertilizer on nutrent uptake, growth, yield and quality of Virginia (flue-cured) tobacco. Field Crops Research. 15(2): 52-60.

Karimian, N. (2011). Fertilizer investigation in Iran: Looking at the past, a guide to the future. Iranian Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Science. 25 (4): 278-255. (In Persian).

López-Bucio, J., De La Vega, O.M., Guevara-García, A. and Herrera-Estrella, L. (2000). Enhanced phosphorus uptake in transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce citrate. Nature Biotechnology. 18(4): 450-453.

Lugon-Moulin, N., Ryan, L., Donini, P. and Rossi, L. (2006). Cadmium content of phosphate fertilizers used for tobacco production. Agronomy and Sustainable Development. 26:151-155.

Mazaherinia, S., Astaraei, A.R., Fotovat, A. and Monshi, A. (2010). Nano iron oxide particles efficiency on Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations in wheat plant. World Applied Sience Journal. 7(1): 36- 40.

Mohsenzadeh, R. (2011). Study the morphological and physiological characteristics of six tobacco cultivars in relation to quality and economic performance, master's thesis. Mashhad Ferdowsi University. 128 pages. (In Persian).

Mohsenzadeh, R. (2015). Study the quality and chemical characteristics of tobacco cultivars (Nicotiana tabaccum L). Extensive Journal of Applied Science. 2(3): 11-14.

Molina, M., Aburto, F., Calderón, R., Cazanga, M. and Es-cudey, M. (2009). Trace element composition of selected fertilizers used in Chile: phosphorus fertilizers as a source of long-term soil contamination. Soil and Sediment Contamination. 18(4): 497-511.

Motahari, H., Muradi, P., Honey, AS. and Motahhari, M. (2011).The effects of application of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on morfological characteristics and effective material of calendula officinalis L. The first national conference on modern topics in agriculture. Islamic Azad University Saveh Branch. (In Farsi).

Naderi, M.R. and Abedi, A. (2012). Application of nanotechnology in agriculture and refinement of environmental pollutants. Iranian Journal of Nanotech. 11(1): 18-26. (In Persian).

Naderi, M.R. and Daneshshahraki, A. (2013). Nano fertilizer and their roles in sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. 5(19): 2229-2232.

Nouraki, F., Alavi Fazel, M., Naderi, A., Panahpour, E. and Lack, Sh. (2016). The effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in combination with phosphorus fertilizer on yield of corn hybrids in the northern of Khuzestan. Iranian Journal of Plant Environmental Physiology. 11 (41): 65-76. (In Persian).

Perece, B., Distsch, D., Zeleznik, J. and Turner, W. (2002). Burn down mangment of winter cereal cover crops for no tillage burley tobacco production. Agronomy Nots. 34(1):47-59.

Rahimzadeh, M., Wazan, M., Malbobi, M. and Madani, H. (2006). Effect of bacteria p5, p7, p13 with different amounts of phosphorus fertilizers on absorption of phosphorus, zinc, nitrogen and quantitative and qualitative yield of forage sorghum in Saveh region. 9th Iranian Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. University of Tehran. Abourihan Campus. (In Persian).

Rejali, M., Asadi, R., Khavazi, K., Asgharzadeh, A. and Afshari, M. (2011). Position of phosphatic biological fertilizers for their development in Iranian agriculture. The 1st Iranian Fertilizer Challenges Congress. Half a Century of the Fertilizer Consumption. March 2011, Tehran. (In Persian).

Rojo, L.W. (2008). Guía de manejo nutrición vegetal de especialidad: tabaco. SQM, Santiago.  

Rustami, M. T. (2010). Effects of N levels on yield and quality of two tobacco cultivars. Master's Thesis. University of Tehran. 110 pages. (In Persian).

Saber, Z., Pirdashti, H., Esmaeili, M.A. and Abbasian, A. (2013). The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar N-80-19 in Sari. Iranian Journal of Agroecology. 5 (1): 39-49. (In Persian).

Sabeti Amirhandeh, M.A., Fallah Nosrat Abad, AR., Norouzi, M., Amiri, E. and Azarpour, E. (2012). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and azotobacter on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of (flue - cured) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Iranian Journal of Water and Soil. 2 (22): 135-149. (In Persian).

Smith, W. (2009). Managing nutrients. pp. 58-81. In: Flue-cured tobacco guide. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Subhashini, D.V. (2012). Bacillus circulans-novel bio-inoculant for FCV tobacco. Crop Research. 43(1, 2&3): 268-272.  

Subhashini, D.V. (2013). Effect of bio-inoculation of AM fungi and PGPR on the growth, yield and quality of FCV tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in vertisols. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science. 83(6): 667-672.

Subhashini, D.V., Anuradha, M., Damodar Reddy, D. and Vasanthi, J. (2016). Development of bioconsortia for optimizing nutrient supplementation through microbes for sustainable tobacco production. International Journal of Plant Production. 10 (4): 479-490.

Weisany, W., Rahimzadeh, S. and Sohrabi, Y. (2012). Effect of biofertilizers on morphological., physiological characteristic and essential oil content in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Iranian Journal Medicine and Aromatic Plants. 28(1): 73-87. (In Farsi).

Zaidi Khan, M.S., Ahemad, M. and Oves, M. (2009). Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica. 56(3):263-284.

Zamani, P. (2010). Cultivation and processing of Tobacco. First Printing, BehAndishan Publishing. 167 pages. (In Persian).

Zaprjanova, P., Dospatliev, L., Angelova, V. and Ivanov, K. (2010). Correlation between soil characteristics and lead and cadmium content in aboveground biomass of Virginia Tobacco. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 163: 253-261.