ارزیابی برخی صفات فیزیکوشیمیایی در ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های روغنی و کنسروی برگزیده زیتون (Olea europaea) سازگار با شرایط اقلیمی گرگان

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های بومی و انتخاب ارقام مناسب در گسترش موفق سطح زیر کشت درختان زیتون، بررسی حاضر جهت ارزیابی ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های روغنی و کنسروی برگزیده و سازگار با شرایط اقلیمی گرگان انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار بر روی 24 ژنوتیپ در مجموعه هاشم‌‌‌آباد در استان گلستان انجام شد. شاخص رسیدگی میوه با روش پیشنهادی شورای بین‌‌‌المللی روغن زیتون و درصد روغن به وسیله سوکسله اندازه‌گیری شدند. برای بررسی کیفیت از روغن حاصل از سانتریفیوژ استفاده گردید. شش ژنوتیپ برتر بر اساس بیش‌ترین درصد روغن انتخاب و از نظر خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی روغن و درصد اسیدهای چرب مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین و کم‌ترین وزن میوه به ترتیب در ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های I7 و E6 مشاهده شد. بالاترین درصد گوشت میوه مربوط به ژنوتیپ I7 بود. ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های E11 و D5 به ترتیب بیش‌ترین درصد روغن در ماده خشک و تر را تولید کردند. کم‌‌‌ترین اسیدیته مربوط به ژنوتیپ B7 و کم‌‌‌ترین پراکسید مربوط به ژنوتیپ E11 بود. ژنوتیپ F1 و بعد از آن E11 دارای بالاترین میزان ترکیبات فنلی روغن بودند. ژنوتیپ A10  دارای بالاترین میزان کلروفیل و کاروتنوئیدها، ژنوتیپ F9 دارای کم‌‌‌ترین شاخص K232 و K270  و بعد از آن ژنوتیپ A10 کم‌‌‌ترین شاخص K270 را نشان داد. بالاترین میزان اسید اولئیک و پایین‌‌‌ترین اسید لینولئیک مربوط به ژنوتیپ A10 و ژنوتیپ B7 دارای کم‌‌‌ترین میزان اسید پالمتیک بود. با توجه به وزن میوه، درصد گوشت و کروی بودن میوه، هشت ژنوتیپ کنسروی برای مطالعات بیش‌‌‌تر انتخاب شدند. از میان ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های برگزیده کنسروی ژنوتیپ I7 بالاترین میزان فلاونوئیدها، بالاترین میزان ترکیبات فنلی، بیش‌ترین میزان آنتی‌اکسیدان‌ها و بیش‌ترین میزان آنتوسیانین را دارا بود. طبق بررسی‌‌‌های حاصل، بهترین ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های روغنی A10 وE11 ، بهترین ژنوتیپ کنسروی I7 و بهترین ژنوتیپ‌‌‌های دومنظوره F10 و B7 تعیین شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of some physicochemical traits in selected oil and table olive (Olea europaea) genotypes compatible with climatic conditions of Gorgan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayyeh Ebraheimnia 1
  • Esmaeil Seife 1
  • Khodayar Hemmati 1
  • Hossein Fereidooni 2
1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Center of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Golestan, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Because of the importance of identifying the native genotypes and selecting the appropriate cultivars for successful development of olive tree cultivation, the present study was conducted to evaluate the selected oil and table genotypes compatible with climatic conditions of Gorgan. The experiment was done in a completely randomized design with three replications on 24 genotypes in Hashemabad complex in Golestan province. The maturity index of fruit was measured according to a method suggested by International Olive Oil Council and the percentage of oil was determined using a soxhlet method. Six genotypes with higher percentage of oil were selected and the physicochemical properties of the oil and the percentage of fatty acids were determined. Results showed that the highest and lowest fruit weights were observed in genotypes I7 and E6, respectively. The highest percentage of fruit flesh was observed in I7. E11 and D5 had the highest percentages of oil in dry and fresh matter. The lowest acidity was observed in B7 and the lowest peroxide was seen in E11. Genotypes F1 and E11 had the highest oil phenolic compounds. A10 showed the highest amounts of chlorophylls and carotenoids. F9 had the lowest indexes of K232 and K270 and following that A10 had the lowest index of K270. The highest percentage of oleic acid and the lowest percentage of linoleic acid were observed in A10. Genotype B7 had the lowest percentage of palmitic acid. Due to fruit weight, percentage of flesh and fruit sphericity, eight table genotypes were selected for further study. Among the selected table genotypes, genotype I7 had the highest levels of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanin. According to the results, the best oil genotypes were A10 and E11, the best table genotype was I7 and the best dual-purpose genotypes were F10 and B7.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidants
  • Fatty Acid
  • Oleic acid
  • Olive oil
  • Physicochemical properties
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