اثر سطوح مختلف بیوچار بر صفات فیزیولوژیک کدو (Cucurbita pepo L.) تحت تنش کمبود آب

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اخیرا، بیوچار توجه زیادی را به‌عنوان یک راهبرد قابل قبول برای افزایش بهره­وری گیاه زراعی به خود جلب کرده است. کمبود آب، بهره­وری کشاورزی را محدود و یک راه حل ممکن برای این مشکل، استفاده از بیوچار است. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر بیوچار بر فیزیولوژی و عملکرد کدو تخم پوست کاغذی (Cucurbita  pepo L.) تحت تنش کمبود آب بود. برای این منظور، آزمایشی فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو سال متوالی (1395-1394) در شهرستان گرگان انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل چهار دور آبیاری 45، 60، 75 و 90 درصد تخلیه رطوبت قابل استفاده در خاک (I1-I4) و بیوچار با مقادیر 0، 5، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار  بود (B0-B20). تشدید کم آبیاری فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی‌اکسیدان و گونه­های واکنشی اکسیژن در برگ کدو را نسبت به تیمار آبیاری 45 درصد، افزایش داد. در مقابل، تمام فعالیت­های آنتی­اکسیدانی، گونه­های واکنشی اکسیژن و محتوای پرولین برگ کدو در خاک تیمار شده با بیوچار، بویژه در تیمار 20 تن بیوچار در هکتار ­، کاهش نشان داد و همچنین بیشترین و کمترین صفات مذکور به ترتیب به تیمارهای I4B0 و I1B20 متعلق بود. جالب توجه است که کاربرد بیوچار اثرات منفی کم آبیاری را بر پارامترهای تبادل گازی برگ، کلروفیل و جذب عناصر غذایی، عملکرد محصول، راندمان مصرف آب و وضعیت آبی گیاه را کاهش داد. عملکرد بذر کاهش 6، 46 و 58 درصدی در I2،I3  و I4 در مقایسه با تیمار I1، بدون در نظر گرفتن میزان بیوچار استفاده شده، نشان داد. نتایج واقعی و شبیه سازی شده، نشان دهنده سطح آستانه کاربرد بیوچار برای هر تیمار آبیاری با توجه به عملکرد دانه بود. میزان پاسخ به بیوچار در مقادیر پایین بیوچار، با افزایش شدت کم آبیاری کند و متوقف شد. اما واکنش تیمار I2 به بیوچار، در مقدار بالای بیوچار به عنوان بیوچار آستانه (Bcritical)، 14  تن بیوچار در هکتار متوقف شد. این بدان معنی است که تیمار I2 واکنش کدو به بیوچار را بهبود بخشید که با راندمان مصرف آب بالاتری همراه بود. این نتایج نشان می­دهد که کاربرد بیوچار می­تواند یک راهبرد موفق برای بهبود بهره­ وری آب و افزایش تولید محصول در منطقه مورد مطالعه (گرگان) باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of biochar on physiological traits of pumpkin under water shortage stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali reza Safahani 1
  • Reza Noora 2
1 Agronomy Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Agronomy Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Biochar has recently attracted lots of attention as a viable strategy for increasing crop productivity. Water shortage limits the productivity of agriculture, and one possible solution to this problem is the application of biochar. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology and yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) under different irrigation regimes. For this purpose, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with four replicates was conducted in Gorgan, in two successive years (2014-2015) and consisting of a factorial combination of four irrigation regimes including 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% (I1-I4) of maximum allowable depletion (MAD) of available soil water (ASW) and biochar was applied at rates 0, 5, 10, and 20 tons per ha(B0–B20). Drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the content of reactive oxygen species in leaf compared to control. In contrast, all of the antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species and proline contents of leaves in soil treated with biochar, particularly at B20 biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O2 and H2O2displayed remarkable decrease, however, maximum and minimum of these substances belonged to I4B0 and I1B20, respectively. Interestingly, biochar application alleviated the negative impact of reduced irrigation on the leaf gas exchange parameters, crop yields, water use efficiency, chlorophyll content, uptake of nutrients, and plant water status. Measured and simulated results revealed a special biochar application threshold for each irrigation regime with respect to seed yield. Response rate to biochar was ceased at lower biochar rates by prolonging irrigation. But the response of I2 treatment to biochar ceased at higher biochar rate as Bcritical (14 t ha-1). This implies that I2 improved response of pumpkin to biochar, which was accompanied by its higher WUE. These results indicate that biochar amendment could be considered as a successful strategy for improving the water productivity and increased crop production in study region (Gorgan).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant activities
  • Drought stress
  • Maximum allowable depletion
  • Seed yield
  • Water Use Efficiency
Abbas, T., Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Rehman, M.Z., Qayyum, M.F., Abbas, F., Hannan, F., Rinklebe, J. and Ok, Y.S. (2017). Effect of biochar on cadmium bioavailability and uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a soil with aged contamination. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 140:37–47.

Abeer, H., Abd_Allah, E.F., Alqarawi, A.A. and Egamberdieva, D. (2015). Induction of salt stress tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Legume Research. 38:579-88.

Afshara, R.K., Hashemi, M., DaCosta, M., Spargo, J. and Sadeghpour, A. (2016). Biochar Application and Drought Stress Effects on Physiological Characteristics of Silybum marianum. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 47(6):743–752.

Akhtar, S., Li, G., Andersen, M.N. and Liu, F. (2014). Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agricultural Water Management. 138:37–44.

Alvarez, S. and Sanchez-Blanco, M.J. (2013). Changes in growth rate, root morphology and water use efficiency of potted Callistemon citrinus plants in response to different levels of water deficit. Scientia Horticulture. 156:54–62.

Asch, F. (2000). Determination of abscisic acid by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Technical Report. Laboratory for Agrohydrology and Bioclimatology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Taastrup, Denmark.

Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T. and Horie, T. (2009). Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crops Resarch. 111: 81–84.

Bamminger, C., Poll, C., Sixt, C., Högy, P., Wüst, D., Kandeler, E. and Marhan, S. (2016). Short-term response of soil microorganisms to biochar addition in a temperate agroecosystem under soil warming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 233:308–317.

Bates, L. S., Waldren, R.P. and Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39:205–07.

Bremmer, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982). Nitrogen-total. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney (eds.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 595- 624.

Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R.L. (2000). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of plant physiologists, Rockville.

Chan, K.Y., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A. and Joseph, S. (2008). Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 46:437–444.

Datta, P. and Kulkarni, M. (2014). Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia Arabica under salt stress. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology. 3:235-45.

De Carvalho, M.H.C. (2008). Drought stress and reactive oxygen species: production, scavenging and signaling. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 3:156–165.

Foyer, C.H. and Noctor, G. (2005). Redox homeostis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses. Plant Cell. 17:1866–1875.

Garg, N. and Manchanda, G. (2009). ROS generation in plants: boon or bane? Plant Biosystems. 143:88–96.

Ghanbari, A., Nadjafi, F. and Shabahang, J. (2007). Effects of irrigation regimes and row arrangement on yield, yield components and seed quality of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 6:1072–1079.

Ghobadi, M., Taherabadi, S., Ghobadi, M.F., Mohammadi, G.R. Jalali-Honarmand, S. (2013). Antioxidant capacity, photosynthetic characteristics and water relations of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars in response to drought stress. Industrial Crops and Products. 50:29–38.

Gratao, P.L., Polle, A., Lea, P.J. and Azevedo, R.A. (2005). Making the life of heavy metal stressed plants a little easier. Functional Plant Biology. 32:481–494.

Hosseni, S.H., Yosef Zade, S., Yrytsayan, S. and Hemmati, K. (2016). Growth analysis and qualitative traits pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) affected by application of chemical and organic fertilizers. Journal of Plant Production Research. 23(1):131-155. (in Persian).

Janero, D.R. (1990). Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 9:515–540.

Kammann, C.I., Sebastian, L., Johannes, W.G. and Hans-Werner, K. (2011). Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and on soil–plant relations. Plant Soil. 345:195–210.

Kanazawa, S., Sano, S., Koshiba, T. and Ushimaru, T. (2000). Changes in antioxidative enzymes in cucumber cotyledons during natural senescence: comparison with those during dark-induced senescence. Physiologia Plantarum. 109:211–216.

Kiani, S.P., Grieu, P., Maury, P., Hewezi, T., Gentzbittel, L. and Sarrafi, A. (2007). Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 114:193–207.

Kim, H.S., Kim, K.R., Yang, J.E., Ok, Y.S., Owens, G., Nehls, T., Wessolek, G. and Kim, K.H. (2016). Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response. Chemosphere. 142:153–159.

Kumar, K.B. and Khan, P.A. (1982). Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in excised ragi (Eleusine corocana cv PR 202) leaves during senescence. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 20:412–416.

Lawlor, D. W. (2002). Limitation to photosynthesis in water stressed leaves: Stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany. 89:871–85.

Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C. and Crowley, D. (2011). Biochar effects on soil biota—a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 43:1812–1836.

Li, S.X., Wang, Z.H., Li, S.Q., Gao, Y.J. and Tian, X.H. (2013). Effect of plastic sheet mulch, wheat straw mulch, and maize growth on water loss by evaporation in dryland areas of China. Agricultural Water Management. 116:39–49.

Lim, T.J., Spokas, K.A., Feyereisen, G. and Novak, J.M. (2016). Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties. Chemosphere. 142:136–144.

Liu, X. and Huang, B. (2000). Heat stress injury in relation to membrane lipid peroxidation in creeping bentgrass. Crop Science. 40:503–10.

Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S. J. and Lehmann, J. (2010). Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil. 333:117–128.

Mandal, K.G. and Sinha, A.C. (2004). Nutrient management effects on light interception, photosynthesis, growth, dry-matter production and yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 190:119–129.

Montillet, J.L., Chamnongpol, S., Rustérucci, C., Dat, J., Van de Cotte, B., Agnel, J.P., Battesti, C., Inzé, D., Van Breusegem, F. and Triantaphylides, C. (2005). Fatty acid hydroperoxides and H2O2 in the execution of hypersensitive cell death in tobacco leaves. Plant Physiology. 138:1516–1526.

Mwaura, M.M., Isutsa, D.K., Ogweno, J.O. and Kasina, M. (2014). Interactive effects of irrigation rate and leaf harvest intensity on edible leaf and fruit yields of multipurpose pumpkin. International Journal of Science and Nature. 5:199–204.

Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate- specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology. 22:867–880.

Nar, H., Saglam, A., Terzi, R., Varkonyi, Z. and Kadioglu, A. (2009). Leaf rolling and photosystem II efficiency in Ctenanthe setosa exposed to drought stress. Photosynthetica, 47:429–36.

Olsen, S.R. and Sommers, L.E. (1982). Phosphorus. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney (eds.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 403-30.

Omran, R.G. (1980). Peroxide levels and the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and indoleacetic acid oxidase during and after chilling cucumber seedlings. Plant Physiology. 65:407–408.

Panda, R.K., Behera, S.K. and Kashyap, P.S. (2004). Effective management of irrigation water for maize under stressed conditions. Agricultural Water Management. 66:181–203.

Premchandra, G.S., Saneoka, H. and Ogata, S. (1990). Cell membrane stability, an indicator of drought tolerance as affected by applied nitrogen in soybean. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 115:63–66.

Sairam, R.K. (1994). Effect of moisture stress on physiological activities of two contrasting wheat genotypes. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 32:594–597.

SAS Institute. (1999). SAS Online Doc. v. 8, SAS Institute, Cary, NC.

Schutzendubel, A. and Polle, A. (2002). Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. Journal of Experimental Botany. 53:1351–1365.

Shaleh, S.A., Ahmed, M.A., Al-Kordy, M.A. and Shalaby, M.A.F. (2011). Genetic analysis of energy production in yellow maize hybrids cultivated in newly cultivated sandy land. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5:104–114.

Siddiqui, M.H., Al-Khaishany, M.Y., Al-Qutami, M.A., Al-Whaibi, M.H., Grover, A., Ali, H.M., Al-Wahibi, M.S. and Bukhari, N.A. (2015). Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16:10214–10227.

Singh, B.K., Sharma, S.R. and Singh, B. (2010). Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage: variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. Scientia Horticulturae. 124:9–13.

Smart, R.E. (1974). Rapid estimate of relative water content. Plant Physiology. 53:258–260.

Soltani, A. (2005). Re-consideration of application of statical methods in agricultural researches. Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad Press.

Soltani, A., Robertson, M.J., Mohammad-Nejad, Y. and Rahemi-Karizaki, A. (2006). Modeling chickpea growth and development: leaf production and senescence. Field Crop Resarch. 99:14–23.

Trovato, M., Mattioli, R. and Costantino, P. (2008). Multiple roles of proline in plant stress tolerance and development. Rendiconti Lincei. 19:325–346.

Vaccari, F.P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F. and Miglietta, F. (2011). Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy. 34:231–238.

Velikova, V., Yordanov, I. and Edreva, A. (2000). Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science. 151:59–66.

Wang, S.Y. and Jiao, H. (2000). Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48:5677–5684.

Yavuz, D., Seymen, M., Yavuz, N. and Türkmen. Ö. (2015). Effects of irrigation interval and quantity on the yield and quality of confectionary pumpkin grown under field conditions. Agricultural Water Management. 159:290-298.

Zhang, Y.Q., Kendy, E., Yu, Q., Liu, C.M., Shen, Y.J. and Sun, H.Y. (2004). Effect of soil water deficit on evapotranspiration, crop yield, and water use efficiency in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management. 64:107–122.