نقش منابع خارجی محافظ‌های گیاهی در تعدیل اثرات مخرب تنش‌های غیر زیستی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

گیاهان همواره در معرض عوامل نامساعد محیطی مختلف نظیر؛ شوری، خشکی، دماهای بالا/پایین، سمیت فلزات سنگین، غرقابی، تابش ماوراء بنفش و ازن قرار می­گیرند. تنش­های غیر زیستی سبب ایجاد اختلال در رشد، فیزیولوژی و عملکرد گیاهان شده و یک چالش بسیار مهم در تولید محصولات زراعی و امنیت غذایی به شمار می­روند. راهکارهای مختلفی برای بهبود عملکرد گیاهان زراعی در شرایط تنش پیشنهاد شده است ولی بیشتر تلاش­های صورت گرفته در زمینه­ افزایش تولید گیاهان زراعی در حضور عوامل تنش­زا ناموفق بوده است. با این وجود در سال­های اخیر استفاده از منابع خارجی محافظ­های گیاهی مانند؛ محافظ­های اسمزی (مانند؛ پرولین و گلیسین بتایین)، هورمون­های گیاهی (نظیر؛ آبسیزیک اسید، سالسیلیک اسید، جیبرلیک اسید، جاسمونیک اسید، براسینو استروییدها و پلی­آمین­ها)، آنتی­اکسیدان­ها (از جمله؛ گلوتاتیون، آسکوربیک اسید و توکوفرول)، عناصر ریز مغذی (مانند؛ آهن و روی) و عناصر کمیاب (نظیر؛ سیلیکون و سلنیوم) در تعدیل خسارات ایجاد شده توسط تنش­های غیر زیستی در گیاهان بسیار موثر شناخته شده­اند. این استراتژی به­دلیل کارآیی بالا، سهولت استفاده، کم هزینه بودن و عدم نیاز به تجهیزات پیشرفته توجهات زیادی را به خود جلب نموده است. از سوی دیگر استفاده از منابع خارجی محافظ­های گیاهی ظرفیت قابل قبولی را برای افزایش رشد، عملکرد و ارتقای توانایی تحمل گیاه در شرایط نامساعد محیطی نشان داده است. با توجه به اهمیت کاربرد منابع خارجی محافظ­های گیاهی در شرایط تنش­زا، در این مقاله به بررسی عکس ­العمل­های گیاه در برابر این ترکیبات در حضور عوامل محدود کننده­ی رشد پرداخته خواهد شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of exogenous phytoprotectants in mitigation of adverse effects of abiotic stresses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Namvar 1
  • Hashem Hadi 2
  • Raouf Seyed sharifi 3
1 Department of Crop Physiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agronomy, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran
چکیده [English]

Plants are always subjected to various environmental adverse factors such as salinity, drought, high/low temperatures, heavy metal toxicity, waterlogging, UV-B radiation, and ozone. Abiotic stresses cause hampering in the growth, physiology, and yield of crops and thus, are an important challenge for crop production and food security. Various strategies have been proposed to improve crop production under stress conditions, but attempts to enhance yield under these conditions have been largely unsuccessful. However, in recent years, exogenous application of phytoprotectants such as osmoprotectants (like proline and Glycinebetaine), phytohormones (for instance Abscisic acid, Salicylic acid, Gibberellic acid, Jasmonic acid, Brassinosteroids, and polyamines), antioxidants (including Ascorbic acid, Glutathione, and Tocopherol), micro nutrients (like Iron and Zinc), and trace elements (including Selenium and Silicon) have been found effective in mitigating the stress-induced damage in plant. This strategy has gained considerable attention because of its high efficiency, feasibility, and cost and labor effectiveness. Moreover, exogenous phytoprotectants show acceptable capacity to enhance plants’ growth, yield, as well as stress tolerance under adverse environmental factors. Regarding the importance of the application of exogenous phytoprotectants under stress condition, this article provides a review of the major responses of plants to these components in the presence of growth restriction factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abiotic stresses
  • Phytoprotectants
  • Stress tolerance
  • Yield increasing
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