غلظت، تجمع و تخصیص فسفر در مراحل ساقه‌رفتن و گرده‌افشانی در تعدادی از گونه‌های زراعی و هرز خانواده گندمیان

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گرگان، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات پنبه کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

اطلاعات مربوط به تغییرات غلظت، تجمع و تخصیص فسفر در گونه­های مختلف گیاهی در راستای بهبود کارآیی جذب و استفاده از عناصر غذایی به­ویژه در خاک­های فقیر حائز اهمیت است. از این­رو، به منظور بررسی تغییرات غلظت، تجمع و تخصیص فسفر در تعدادی از گونه‌های زراعی و هرز خانواده گندمیان، در سال زراعی 95-1394 آزمایشی گلدانی در شرایط هوای آزاد در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی به‌صورت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان در خاکی با مقدار فسفر قابل استفاده کم (85/4 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم) اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل هفت گونه زراعی و هرز از خانواده گندمیان (گندم نان، گندم دوروم، جو معمولی، جو لخت، چاودم، یولاف وحشی و علف­خونی) و دو شرایط عدم مصرف و مصرف کودهای نیتروژنه، فسفره و پتاسه به مقدار توصیه شده بودند. بر اساس نتایج به­دست آمده، در هر دو مرحله ساقه­رفتن و گرده­افشانی با مصرف کود، غلظت و تجمع فسفر در تمام بخش­های گیاه، به­استثنای غلظت فسفر ریشه در مرحله ساقه­رفتن، به­طور معنی­داری افزایش پیدا کرد. میانگین غلظت فسفر بخش هوایی بوته در مراحل ساقه­رفتن و گرده­افشانی در شرایط عدم کوددهی به­ترتیب 9/3 و 9/1 ­گرم در کیلوگرم بود که در نتیجه مصرف کود به­طور معنی­داری افزایش یافته و به­ترتیب به 5/4 و 1/2 ­گرم در کیلوگرم رسید. همچنین، در نتیجه کوددهی میانگین مقدار فسفر تجمع یافته در بخش هوایی بوته در ساقه ­رفتن از 92/0 به 2/3  و در گرده­افشانی از 45/2 به 2/9 میلی­گرم در بوته رسید. در گرده­افشانی، تأثیر گونه گیاهی بر غلظت فسفر در تمام اندام­های گیاه اما در ساقه­رفتن فقط بر غلظت فسفردر ساقه و بخش هوایی بوته معنی­دار بود. با این حال، در هر دو مرحله، تجمع فسفر در تمام بخش­های گیاه و کل بوته به­طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر گونه گیاهی و اثرات متقابل گونه و کوددهی قرار گرفت. میانگین غلظت فسفر بخش هوایی بوته در گونه­های مورد مطالعه در ساقه رفتن از 9/2 تا 7/4 و در گرده­افشانی از 4/1 تا 7/2 گرم در کیلوگرم متغیر بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین­های اثرات متقابل نشان داد که در مرحله ساقه­رفتن، در شرایط عدم کوددهی هیچ اختلاف معنی­داری بین گونه­ها از نظر تجمع فسفر در بخش­های مختلف بوته وجود نداشت. در مرحله گرده­افشانی نیز اختلاف­های بین گونه­ها از نظر تجمع فسفر در شاهد عدم کوددهی به­مراتب کمتر از شرایط کوددهی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phosphorus concentration, accumulation, and allocation in stem elongation and anthesis growth stages in some crop and weed species of Gramineae

نویسندگان [English]

  • arezoo abidi 1
  • ebrahim zeinali 1
  • afshin soltani 1
  • abdolreza gharanjiki 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Plant Production, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Cotton Research Institute of Iran, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Information on variations in concentration, accumulation, and allocation of phosphorus (P) in different species is important for improving the absorption and use efficiency of mineral nutrients, especially in poor soils. Hence, this experiment was conducted in order to study the variations in P concentration, accumulation, and allocation to various parts of plants in a number of gramineae crops and weeds in stem elongation and anthesis growth stages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement with three replications in an open field condition in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences using a low (4.85 mg kg-1) available P soil during 2015-2016 growing season. Treatments in the pot experiment included 7 crop and weed species of poaceae family including bread wheat, durum wheat, common barley, naked barley, triticale, wild oat, and canary grass and application and non-application of recommended N, P, and K chemical fertilizers. Based on the results, with fertilizer application, the concentration and accumulation of P significantly increased in all parts of plants except for root in both stages of stem elongation and anthesis. Under non-fertilization conditions, the average P concentrations of the aerial part of the plant at stem elongation and pollination stages were 3.9 and 1.9, respectively, which increased to 4.5 and 2.1 g kg-1 as a result of fertilization. Also, as a result of fertilization, the average P concentration accumulated in the aerial part of the plants increased from 0.92 to 3.2 mg plant-1 at the stem elongation and from 2.45 to 2.9 mg plant-1 at anthesis stage. During anthesis, the effect of plant species on P concentration in all parts of the plants was significant while during stem elongation, this effect was significant only for P concentration of stem and aerial parts of the plants under study. However, at both stages, accumulation of P in all parts and in the whole plant was significantly affected by plant species and the interaction effects of the species and fertilization. The average concentration of P in the aerial parts of the species varied from 2.9 to 4.7 g kg-1 at stem elongation and from 1.4 to 2.7 g kg-1 at anthesis stage. The results of the mean comparisons of the interaction effects showed no significant difference of P accumulation in different parts of the plant at stem elongation stage under unfertilized conditions, and that at anthesis stage, differences of P accumulation under non-fertilization conditions between species were much less than those of fertilization conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crops
  • fertilization
  • Plant organs
  • Phosphorus partitioning
  • Weeds
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