اثر نانو‌کودهای آهن، منگنز و نیتروژن بر برخی از صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک ارقام مختلف کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر نانو­کودهای آهن، منگنز و نیتروژن بر برخی از صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیکارقام کنجد، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394 در مزرعه­ای واقع در شمال­غرب شهر دهلران اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل نوع رقم (بومی، دشتستان 2 و داراب 1) و نوع محلول­پاشی نانوکودها (شاهد، منگنز، آهن و نیتروژن) با غلظت دو در هزار بودند. بر اساس نتایج برهمکنش محلول­پاشی نانوکودها و رقم بر تعداد دانه در کپسول، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت در سطح پنج درصد معنی‌دار بود. مقدار کاروتنوئیدها و قندهای محلول گیاه فقط تحت تأثیر تیمار محلول­پاشی نانوکودها قرار گرفت و بیشترین مقدار این ترکیبات در شرایط استفاده از آهن مشاهده شد. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد بیولوژیک در رقم دشتستان 2 و در تیمار محلول‌پاشی منگنز و کمترین عملکرد بیولوژیک در رقم داراب 1 و در شاهد به‌دست آمد. عملکرد دانه و مقدار کلروفیل a تحت تأثیر رقم و محلول‌پاشی قرار گرفت ولی برهم‌کنش تیمارها بر عملکرد دانه معنی­دار نبود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در رقم دشتستان 2 مشاهده شد و اختلاف معنی­دار با دو رقم دیگر داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار نانوکود منگنز مشاهده شد که اختلاف معنی­دار با تیمار محلول­پاشی آهن و شاهد داشت. با توجه ­به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده بهترین رقم برای کاشت در منطقه مورد مطالعه رقم دشتستان 2 بود. علاوه بر این اثر نانوکود منگنز در بهبود عملکرد دانه ارقام مختلف کنجد قابل­ملاحظه بود به همین دلیل ضمن توصیه این نانوکود برای تغذیه کنجد انجام مطالعات تکمیلی در ارتباط با اثرات این کود پیشنهاد می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Iron, Manganese, and Nitrogen nano-fertilizers on some agronomic and physiological traits of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • gafar bakhtiari 1
  • Masoumeh Maleki 1
  • Majid Rostami 2
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Malayer University, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Iran
چکیده [English]

­In order to investigate the effects of different nano-fertilizers of Iron, manganese, and Nitrogr on some agronomic and physiological traits of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in a farm in Northwestern Dehloran. Experimental factors included three cultivars of sesame (Dehloran landrace, Dashtestan 2, and Darab 1) and four levels of nano-fertilizer foliar application (control, Fe, N, and Mn). Based on the results, the interaction of cultivar × nano-fertilizer on number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seeds weight, biological yield, and harvest index were significant (p≤0.05). Carotenoids and also soluble sugars content were affected only by the foliar application of nano-fertilizers and the highest amount of carotenoids and soluble sugars was observed in iron nano-fertilizer treatment. The highest amount of biological yield (1305 g.m-2) was observed in Dashtestan 2 with manganese application whereas the lowest biological yield (357 g.m-2) was in Darab 1 with control treatment. The highest seed yield (215 g.m-2) was observed in Dashtestan 2, and the difference between this cultivar and the other cultivars was significant. Application of different nano-fertilizer had positive effects on seed yield but only the effect of manganese nano-fertilizer on this trait was significant. Manganese resulted in the highest amount of seed yield (186 g.m-2) which was significantly different from the treatment with iron fertilizer and control (123 g.m-2).  Based on the findings, Dashtestan 2 is recommended as the best cultivar for plantation in the region. Also, application of Manganese nano-fertilizer had a remarkable performance in yield improvement in sesame cultivars. Therefore, manganese nano-fertilizer is recommended for nourishing sesame while more studies are suggested on the effects of this fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plant nutrition
  • Soluble sugar
  • Yield chlorophyll
  • foliar application
Ahmadi, M. and Bahrani, M. (2009). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of three sesame cultivars in Bushehr Province. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 13(48):123-131. (In Persian).

Arya, S.K. and Roy, B.K. (2011). Manganese induced changes in growth, chlorophyll content and antioxidants activity in seedlings of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Environmental Biology. 32(6): 707-711.

Briat, J.F., Dubos, C. and Gaymard, F. (2015). Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality. Trends in Plant Scienc. 20(1): 33-40.

Bybordy, A. and Mamedov, G. (2010). Evaluation of application methods efficiency of zinc and iron for canola (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2(1): 94-103.

Farzadfar, S., Zarinkamar, F. and Hojati, M. (2017). Magnesium and manganese affect photosynthesis, essential oil composition and phenolic compounds of Tanacetum parthenium. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 112: 207-217.

Fathi Amirkhiz, K., Amini Dehaghi, M. and Heshmati, S. (2015). Study the effect of iron chelate on chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and some biochemical traits in Safflower under deficit irrigation condition. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 46: 137-145. (In Persian).

Fernando, D.R. and Lynch, J.P. (2015). Manganese phytotoxicity: new light on an old problem. Annals of Botany. 116(3): 313-319.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2017). FAOSTAT Database. Available at Web site http://www.fao.org/faostat /en/#data/QC (Accessed: 31 December 2017).

Goldani, M. and Fazeli Kakhki, F. (2014). Evaluation of Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth characteristics, yield and yield components of three sesame ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(1): 127-136. (In Persian).

Hassani, M., Haidari, M. and Barzegar, M. (2013). Investigation iron and sulfur fertilizer effect on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum.L) under drought stress conditions in Gotvand. Crop Physiology Journal. 4(16): 33-42. (In Persian).

Heidari1, M., Goleg, M., Ghorbani, H. and Baradarn Firozabad, M. (2016). Effect of drought stress and foliar application of iron oxide nanoparticles on grain yield, ion content and photosynthetic pigments in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science. 46(4): 619-628. (In Persian).

Heydari, M., Galia., M, Ghorbani, H. and Baradaran Firoozabadi, M. (2015). Effect of drought stress and foliar application of iron oxide nanoparticles on grain yield, ion content and photosynthetic pigments in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Sciences. 46(4): 619-628. (In Persian).

Kochert, G. (1978). Carbohaydrate determination by the phenol sulfuric acid method. Handbook of physiological methods. 2: 95-97.

Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophyll and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology. 148: 350-382.

Lidon, F.C. and Teixeira, M.G. (2000). Oxy radical’s production and control in the chloroplast of Mn-treated rice. Plant Science. 152(1): 7-15.

Malik, M.A., Saleem, M.F., Cheema, M.A. and Ahmed, S. (2003). Influence of different nitrogen levels on productivity of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under varying planting patterns. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 5(4): 490-492.

Marschner, H. (2011). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd ed. Academic Press.

Mohamed, A.A. and Aly, A.A. (2008). Alterations of some secondary metabolites and enzymes activity by using exogenous antioxidant compound in onion plants grown under seawater salt stress. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research. 3(2): 139-146.

Motamed, A. (2005). Effect of Zn, Mn and Fe fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of bread wheat cultivar Pishtaz. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 21(4): 631-634. (In Persian).

Naderi, M., Danesh Shahraki, A.A. and Naderi, R. (2011). Application of nanotechnology in the optimization of formulation of chemical fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Nanotechnology. 12: 16-23. (In Persian).

Pahlavan Rad, M.R., Keykha, Gh. and narooyirad, M.R. (2008). Effect of Zinc ,Iron and Manganese on the yield, yield components, concentration and uptake of nutrient elements in Wheat Seeds. Pajouhesh –Va-Sazandegi. 79: 142-150. (In Persian).

Pathak, N., Rai, A.K. Kumari, R. Thapa, A. and Bhat, K.V. (2014). Sesame crop: an underexploited oilseed holds tremendous potential for enhanced food value. Agricultural Sciences. 5(6): 519-529.

Pereira, M.L., Trapani, N. and Sadras, V.O. (2000). Genetic improvement of sunflower in Argentina between 1930 and 1995: Part III. Dry matter partitioning and grain composition. Field Crops Research. 67(3): 215-221.

Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Saburi, A., Mohamad Abadi, A.A. and Moradi, R. (2013). Effect of Chemical Fertilizer, Cow Manure and Municipal Compost on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Quantity of three Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Cultivars in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 11(2): 241-250. (In Persian).

Rostami, M. and Ahmadi, A.R. (2014). Investigation the effect of nitrogen forms and split fertilization on grain yield and nitrogen content of two corn hybrids. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi). 10: 40-46.

(In Persian).

Saeidi, G.h. (2008). Effect of some macro and micronutrients on seed yield and other agronomic traits of sesame in Isfahan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 12(45): 379-390. (In Persian).

Santos, E.F., Santini, J.M.K. Paixão, A.P., Júnior, E.F. Lavres, J. Campos, M. and dos Reis, A.R. (2017). Physiological highlights of manganese toxicity symptoms in soybean plants: Mn toxicity responses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 113: 6-19.

Shakeri, A., Amini Dehchi, M., Tabatabaei, S.A. and Modares Sanavi, S.A.M. (2012). Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Biofertilizer on Seed Yield, its Components, Oil and Protein Percent in Sesame Varieties. Journal of Sustainable. Agriculture and Production Science. 22(1): 71-85. (In Persian).

Shomali, R., Abdulzadeh, A., Hadadchi, G.R. and Sadeghipour, H.R. (2007). Effect of different potassium and iron concentration on growth, ion contents and some biochemical parameters in rice (var. tarem). Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. 14(5): 64-77. (In Persian).

Yaghoobi, S., Faramarzi, M., Karimi, H. and Sarvarian, J. (2016). Assessment of efficiency of artificial neural network in predicting the trend of desertification processes by using GIS (Case study: Dehloran plain, Ilam). Journal of RS and GIS for Natural Resources. 24: 61-77. (In Persian).