مدل‌سازی الگوی سبز شدن گیاهچه سه گونه علف‌هرز در واکنش به دما و رطوبت خاک در مزرعه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مدل‌های پیش‌بینی زمان سبزشدن گیاهچه برای بهینه‌سازی برنامه‌های کنترل علف‌های‌هرز به‌کار‌می‌روند. این آزمایش با هدف پیش‌بینی زمان ظهور سه گونه علف‌هرز تابستانه تاتوره (Datura stramonium)، تاج‌ریزی‌سیاه (Solanum nigrum) و تاج‌خروس‌ریشه‌قرمز (Amaranthus retroflexus) در شرایط مزرعه با استفاده از دما و رطوبت خاک اجراء شد. سه تاریخ کاشت اول خرداد، اول تیر و اول مرداد و 3 ر‍ژیم آبیاری دو، سه و چهار روز یک‌بار به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار برای سه گونه علف‌هرز مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. برای بیان روند تغییرات سبزشدن از مدل زمان آبی-گرمایی استفاده شد. مگاپاسکال-درجه سانتی‌گراد-روز مورد نیاز برای سبز شدن گونه‌ها با دما و پتانسیل پایه به‌دست آمده توسط مدل زمان آبی-گرمایی و رطوبت و دمای روزانه خاک محاسبه شد. درصد سبز شدن تجمعی در مقابل زمان آبی-گرمایی رسم و مدل سیگموئیدی سه پارامتری برآن برازش داده شد. سپس حداکثر درصد سبز شدن و مقدار مگاپاسکال- درجه سانتی‌گراد روز مورد نیاز برای 50 درصد سبز شدن بذور برآورد گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین و کمترین درصد سبز شدن سه گونه علف‌هرز به ترتیب در رژیم آبیاری دو روز یک‌بار در ماه مرداد و رژیم آبیاری چهار روز یک‌بار در ماه خرداد رخ داد. سبز شدن گیاهچه سه گونه علف‌هرز در ماه مرداد نسبت به ماه‌های خرداد و تیر سریع‌ترو بیشتر بود. زمان آبی-گرمایی مورد نیاز برای سبز شدن سه گونه‌ متفاوت بود. تاتوره کمترین و تاج‌ریزی‌‌سیاه بیشترین زمان آبی-گرمایی را برای 50 درصد سبز شدن گیاهچه نیاز داشتند. دمای بهینه سبزشدن تاج‌خروس‌ریشه قرمز، تاج‌ریزی‌سیاه و تاتوره به‌ترتیب 35-30، 30-27، 34-29 درجه سانتی‌گراد به‌دست آمد.سبز شدن گیاهچه سه گونه علف‌هرز در ماه مرداد و بیشترین و کمترین درصد سبز شدن سه گونه علف‌هرز به‌ترتیب در رژیم آبیاری دو روز یک‌بار در ماه مرداد و رژیم آبیاری چهار روز یک‌بار در ماه خرداد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling of field emergence pattern of three weed species in response to soil temperature and moisture

نویسندگان [English]

  • somayeh Tokasi 1
  • ebrahim kazerooni monfared 2
  • parviz rezvani 3
  • mehdi Nasiri Mahalati 3
1 Plant Protection Research Department, Gilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
2 University of Applied Science and Technology, Gilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Models that predict the timing of weed seedling emergence are used to optimize weed control schedules. This study was carried out with the aim to predict the time of seedling emergence of three weed species, namely, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, and Amaranthus retroflexus in field conditions using soil temperature and moisture. Three planting dates including first of June, first of July, and first of August were studied with three irrigation regimes including every other two, three, and four days and with three weed species. To express the changes in the emergence process, hydrothermal time model () was used. MPa - °C - days required for the emergence was calculated with the base temperature and water potential that was calculated by hydrothermal time model and soil moisture and temperature. Cumulative emergence percentage was plotted with hydrothermal time model and the sigmoid three-parameter model was fitted on it. Then the maximum germination percentage and MPa - °C - days required for 50% seedling emergence was calculated. Results showed that seedling emergence of three weed species was the highest and lowest in the first regime of irrigation in August and third regime of irrigation in June, respectively. Three species seedlings were emerged higher and faster in August than in June and July. Hydrothermal time required for the seedling emergence of these species was varied. D. stramonium had the lowest and S. nigrum had the highest hydrothermal time for 50% seedling emergence. The optimum temperatures for A. retroflexus, S. nigrum, and D. stramonium were 30-35, 37-30, and 29-34 °C respectively in all water potentials.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sigmoid three-parameter model
  • soil moisture
  • Soil temperature
  • Water potentials
  • weed
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