بررسی میزان تجمع کادمیوم و سرب درگیاه دارویی همیشه ‌بهار (Calendula officin alis)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، شهرکرد، ایران.

چکیده

فلزات سنگین از جمله مهمترین آلاینده‌های زیست محیطی هستند که در تمام جوامع صنعتی یافت می‌شوند. برای اصلاح خاک‌های آلوده به فلزات سنگین، روشی به نام گیاه‌پالایی وجود دارد. به منظور بررسی پتانسیل پالایش گیاه همیشه بهار به فلزات سنگین سرب و کادمیوم و اثر آن‌ها بر رشد، عملکرد و سایر صفات زراعی این گیاه، آزمایشی فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار به صورت گلدانی در مرکز تحقیقات سازمان پارک ها و فضای سبز شهرداری شهرکرد در سال 1395 انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل کادمیوم در چهار سطح (0، 5، 25 و 50 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک خشک) و سرب در چهار سطح (0، 40، 100 و 250 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک خشک) بود. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف سرب وکادمیوم، تأثیر معنا‌دار برخصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی گیاه همیشه‌ بهار داشت. وزن خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه و تجمع کادمیوم و سرب در گیاه و خاک تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار گرفت. با افزایش غلظت فلزات، مقدار وزن خشک ریشه و بخش هوایی به طور معنا‌دار نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. با افزایش غلظت کادمیوم، میزان انباشت کادمیوم در گیاه و میزان کادمیوم قابل جذب خاک افزایش یافت و کادمیوم ضمن حرکت به بخش‌های هوایی همراه با سرب بیشتری به بخش‌های هوایی منتقل شد. مشخص شد که ﮔﯿﺎه ﻫﻤﯿﺸﻪ ﺑﻬﺎر ﮔﯿﺎﻫﯽ ﺑﯿﺶ‌اﻧﺒﺎﺷت‌گر اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﻪ اﻧﺒﺎﺷﺖ ﻓﻠﺰات ﺳﻨﮕﯿﻦ ﺳﺮب و ﮐﺎدﻣﯿﻢ در بخش‌های مختلف گیاه به خصوص بخش هوایی است. آستانه تحمل گیاه تا تیمار تحت آلودگی ترکیبی کادمیوم پنج (میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم) و سرب 250 (میلی‌گرم درکیلوگرم) بود و پس از آن در اکثر صفات مورد بررسی روند نزولی دیده شد. به نظر می‌رسد اثرات منفی این فلزات به خصوص کادمیوم، غالباً به دلیل اثر بر فتوسنتز گیاهی، می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of lead and cadmium accumulation in Marigold medicinal plant (Calendula officinalis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrab Yadegari 1
  • Samira Eskandari 1
  • Ramin Irani Pour 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2 Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiary Province, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Heavy metals are the most important bioenvironmental pollutants that are found in all industrial communities. The phytoremediation technique is applied to refine the land and reclaim contaminated soil from heavy metals. In order to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of Marigold plant against lead and cadmium heavy metals and their influence on growth, yield, and other characteristics of this plant, a pot experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial layout with six replications at Research Field Municipal Parks and Green Spaces of Shahrekord during spring and summer of 2016. Treatments included different levels of cadmium (0, 5, 25, and 50 mg.kg-1 in dry soil) and lead (0, 40, 100, and 250 mg.kg-1 in dry soil). Results showed that different levels of lead and cadmium significantly affected morpho-physiological characteristics. Shoot and root dry and fresh weights and lead and cadmium accumulation in plant soil differed significantly. With an increase in heavy metal concentrations, shoot and root dry and fresh weights significantly decreased compared to the control plants. By adding cadmium concentration, the amount of cadmium in plant and available cadmium in soil increased and therefore translocated to aerial parts of plants along with the more lead. Results of this research showed that Marigold is a super accumulator plant that can accumulate cadmium and lead particularly in its aerial parts. The tolerance threshold in this plant was observed in the treatment containing combination of cadmium (up to 5 mg.kg-1) and lead (up to 250 mg.kg-1) of dry soil after which a decreasing trend was observed in most of the characteristics under study. It seems that negative effects of these heavy metals particularly cadmium is due to their effect on photosynthesis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium
  • Marigold
  • Phytoremediation
  • Threshold lead
  • tolerance
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