اثر نظام‌های مختلف کودی زیستی، شیمیایی و تلفیقی بر رشد، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

2 گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

3 گروه باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گرگان، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای زیستی، شیمیایی و تلفیقی بر رشد، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا شد. آزمایش شامل 13 تیمار بود که عبارتند از: NPK، بیوفسفر، بیوفسفر+ 25 درصد NPK، بیوفسفر+50 درصد NPK، بیوفسفر+100 درصد NPK،  نیتروکسین،  نیتروکسین + 25 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین + 50 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین +100 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین + بیوفسفر، نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر + 25 درصد NPK، نیتروکسین + بیوفسفر +50 درصد NPK و نیتروکسین + بیوفسفر+100 درصد NPK. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر تیمارهای مختلف کود شیمیایی، زیستی و تلفیقی بر اغلب صفات مورد بررسی به استثنای تعداد برگ، تاریخ گلدهی و تعداد گلچه در طبق معنی‌دار بود. در اغلب صفات بیشترین میانگین از تیمار تلفیقی نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر + 100 درصد NPK حاصل گردید هرچند اختلاف معنی‌داری با تیمار نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر +50 درصد NPK نداشت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که کاربرد تلفیقی کود زیستی نیتروکسین + بیوفسفر + 50 درصد NPK در مقایسه با تیمار تلفیقی نیتروکسین + بیوفسفر + 100 درصد NPK می‌تواند ضمن کاهش 50 درصدی مصرف کودهای شیمیایی، عملکرد مطلوبی نیز تولید کند. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده می‌توان اظهار داشت که استفاده از 50 درصد مقدار توصیه شده کودهای شیمیایی به همراه کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین و بیوفسفر می‌تواند جهت حصول حداکثر عملکرد کمی و کیفی آفتابگردان توصیه گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of various biological, chemical, and integrated fertilization systems on growth, yield, and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • sima abyar 1
  • barat ali fakheri 2
  • hosein gorgini 3
  • nafiseh mahdi nezhad 2
  • Maryam Harati Rad 1
1 Department of Horticulture and Landscape, School of Agriculture, University Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
2 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, School of Agriculture, University Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
3 Department of Horticulture and Landscape, School of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of biological, chemical, and integrated fertilizers on growth, yield, and yield components of sunflowers, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Zabol University in the growing season 2014-15. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments including NPK, biophosphorus, biophosphorus + 25% NPK, biophosphorus + 50% NPK, biophosphorus + 100% NPK, nitroxin, nitroxin + 25% NPK, nitroxin + 50% NPK, nitroxin + 100% NPK, biophosphorus + nitroxin, biophosphorus + nitroxin + 25% NPK, biophosphorus + nitroxin + 50%NPK and biophosphorus + nitroxin + 100%NPK. The results showed that the effect of different treatments of chemical, biological, and integrated fertilizers were significant on most of the studied traits except the number of leaves, flowering date, and the number of florets per head. The highest mean in most of the studied traits belonged to the nitroxin + biophosphorus + 100% NPK treatment which was not significantly different from the nitroxin + biophosphorus + 50% NPK integrated treatment. The results of this study showed that combined application of nitroxin + biophosphorus + 50% NPK in comparison with the integrated treatment of nitroxin + biophosphorus + 100% NPK in addition to reducing 50% of chemical fertilizers application can also produce optimal yield. According to the obtained results, the application of 50% of the recommended amount of chemical fertilizers in combination with the nitroxin and biophosphorus biofertilizers can be recommended for obtaining the maximum quality and quantity yield of sunflower.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophosphorus
  • Leaf area
  • Nitroxin
  • NPK
  • Protein
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