اثر محلول‌پاشی آهن، بور و سلنیوم بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک ریشه و محتوای رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی گیاه دارویی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) تحت تنش شوری کلرید سدیمی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

تنش شوری از جمله عوامل محدود کننده رشد گیاهان و یکی از موانع مهم در عدم جذب عناصر غذایی توسط گیاه می­باشد. به همین منظور آزمایش گلدانی در فضای محیطی، به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آزمایشی کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار برای ارزیابی اثر محلول­پاشی عناصر آهن (سکوسترن 138 با غلظت 5 در هزار)، بور (اسید بوریک با غلظت 5 در هزار) و سلنیوم (سلنیت سدیم با غلظت 2 در هزار) تحت شرایط شوری کلرید سدیمی بر خصوصیات رشدی ریشه و محتوای رنگیزه­های فتوسنتزی گیاه استویا انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف کلرید سدیم (صفر، 3، 6 و9 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و محلول­پاشی ترکیبات عناصر در هشت سطح (عدم محلول­پاشی، آهن، بر، سلنیوم، آهن+سلنیوم، آهن+بر، سلنیوم+بر و آهن+ سلنیوم+ بر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزیش سطح شوری کاهش معنی­دار در میانگین وزن خشک ریشه، حجم، طول، سطح، قطر و چگالی ریشه، درصد خشک ریشه به حجم خاک و میزان کلروفیل a، b و کل مشاهده گردید. در بین ترکیب­های مختلف محلول­پاشی، استفاده توأم از سه عنصر آهن، بور و سلنیوم بالاترین میانگین صفات وزن تر و خشک ریشه، حجم، طول، سطح و چگالی ریشه را داشت که تفاوت معنادار آماری با بقیه سطوح تیماری نشان داد. محلول­پاشی توأم هر سه عنصر در مقایسه با عدم محلول­­پاشی باعث افزایش میانگین وزن خشک، حجم، طول و سطح ریشه در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شد. بیشترین میانگین معنادار آماری صفات کلروفیل b و مجموع کلروفیل کل در محلول­پاشی عنصر آهن در سطح بدون تنش و ترکیب آهن و سلنیوم در سطح شوری سه دسی­زیمنس بر متر بود. به‌طورکلی کاهش رشد ریشه و کاهش محتوای کلروفیل برگ (به خصوص کلروفیل a) در اثر تنش شوری رخ داد و مجموع این عوامل، موجب افت رشد گیاه در سطوح بالاتر شوری (6 و 9 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) گردید. بر اساس پژوهش حاضر به منظور کاهش اثرات منفی تنش شوری به خصوص در سطوح پایین­تر (3 و 6 دسی زیمنس بر متر) محلول­پاشی با عناصر آهن و سلنیوم که باعث افزایش میزان کلروفیل گیاه و بهبود رشد ریشه می­گردند، توصیه می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

TThe effect of foliar application of iron, boron, and selenium on the root morphological characteristics and the photosynthetic pigment contents of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) medicinal plant under sodium chloride salinity

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi
  • heshmat Omidi
  • seyed jalal Tabatabaei
Agricultural College and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]


    
Salt stress is one of the factors limiting plant growth and a major obnstacles for nutrient uptake in plants.  A factorial experiment with pots in the open air was implemented based on a completely randomized design with three replications to evaluate the effect of foliar application of iron (Fe: Sequestrene 138 at a concentration of 5 per thousand), boron (B: Boric acid at a concentration of 5 per thousand), and selenium (Se: Sodium selenite at a concentration of 2 per thousand) under NaCl salinity on root growth characteristics and the photosynthetic pigmentscontent of Stevia plant.  The experiment factors included different levels of sodium chloride (0, 3, 6, and 9 dS m-1) and spraying composition at eight levels (no spraying, Fe, B, Se, Fe + Se, Fe + B, Se + B, and Fe + Se + B). Results showed that salinity caused significant reduction in root dry weight, volume, length, diameter and density of root, percentage of dry weight to soil volume ratio, and chlorophyll a, b, and total. Among the various combinations of spraying, combined application of Fe, B, and Se had the highest mean dry weight, volume, length, area, and density of the root. The highest significant mean chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents were observed in spraying solution containing Fe at the non-stress level, and the combination of Fe and Se at 3 dS m-1 level of salinity. In general, decrease in root growth and leaf chlorophyll content (especially chlorophyll a) occurred under salt stress and generally, these factors led to the loss of plant growth at higher salinity levels (6 and 9 dS m-1). In order to reduce the negative effects of salinity stress, especially at lower levels (3 and 6 dS m-1), using Fe and Se elements are recommended to increase the chlorophyll content of the plant and improve root growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoids
  • Chlorophyll
  • Root dry weight
  • Root volume
  • Stevia
Abd El-Hady, B.A. (2007). Effect of zinc application on growth and nutrient uptake of barley plant irrigated with saline water. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 3: 431-436.

Abdollahi, M., Eshghi, S., Tafazzoli, E. and Moosavi, N. (2012). Effects of paclobutrazol, boric acid and zinc sulfate on vegetative and reproductive growth of straweberry cv. Selva. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 14: 357-363.

Aghighi Shahverdi, M., Omidi, H. and Tabatabaei, S. J. (2017). Determination of optimum duration and concentration of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) seed priming with Boric acid (H3BO3). Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research. 4(1):24-30.

Ahmadpour, R., Hoseeinzadeh, S.R. and Chashyani, S. (2016). Study of morphophysiological and biochemical characteristics of root of lentil cultivars in response to moisture stress.  Journal of Iranian Plant Ecophysiological Research. 43(11): 39-51.

Akhavan, S., Shabanpoor, M. and Esfahani, M. (2012). Effect of density and soil texture on the growth of root and shoot of wheat. Journal of Soil and Water (Agricultural Science and Technology). 26(3):727-735.

Armand, N., Amiri, H. and Ismaili, A. (2016). Interaction of methanol spray and water-deficit stress on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. 92(1):102-110.

Asadipoor, N., Sepehri, A. and Hosseini, S.A. (2014). Effect of different levels of salinity on growth indices of three genotypes of Medicago sativa. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 7 (2): 216-207.

Attarzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Torabi, B. and Dashti, H. (2015). Effect of Ca(NO3)2. KH2PO4 and MnSO4 foliar application on ion accumulation and physiological traits of safflower under salt stress. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi). 107:133-142.

Baloch, Q.B., Chachar, Q.I. and Tareen, M.N. (2008). Effect of foliar application of macro and micro nutrients on production of green chilies (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agricultural Technology. 4(2): 177-184.

Baybordi, A. (2004). Effect of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu on the quality and quantity of wheat under salinity stress. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 17: 140-150.

Ebtsam, A., El-Housini, M.A., Ahmed, M.S., Hassanein, M. and Tawfik, M. )2014(. Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on growth and quality of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) under salt stress. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 14 (4): 275-281.

Farzaneh, N., Golchin, A. and Hashemimajd, K. (2010). Effect of nitrogen and boric acid on growth, yield and nutrient concentration of tomato. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture Soilless Culture Research Center. 2(1):19-28.

Feng, R., Weic, C. and Tu, S. (2013). The roles of selenium in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 87:58– 68.

Ganjali, A., Kafi, M., Bagheri, A.R. and Shahriari Ahmadi, F. (2003). Algometric relationship for root and shoot characteristics of chickpea seedlings (Cicer arietinum). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 18: 1.67-80.

Ganjeali, A. and Bagheri, A. (2011).Evaluation of morphological characteristics of root chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in response to drought stress. Pulses Research. 1(2): 101-110. (In Persian with English abstract).

Hajabbasi, M.A. (2001). Tillage effects on soil compactness and wheat root morphology. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 3: 67-77.

Hajiboland, R. (2012). Effects of micronutrient deficiencies on plants stress responses. In: A. Parvaiz, M.N.V. Prasad, (Eds.) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer Verlag, pp. 282–326.

Hajiboland, R., Keivanfar, N., Jodmand, A., Rezaei, H. and Nezhadmohammad, Y. (2014). Effect of Selenium treatment on drought tolerance of canola plant. Plant Research. 27(4):557-568.

Hartikainen, H., Xue T. and Piironen V. (2000). Selenium as an anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant in ryegrass. Plant Soil. 225: 193–200.

Heidari, F., Zehtab Salmasi, S., Javanshir, A., Aliari, H. and Dadpoor, M.R. (2008). The effects of application of microelements and plant density on yield and essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 24, 1-9. [In Persian with English Summary].

Heijari, J., Kivimäenpää, M., Hartikainen, H., Julkunen-Tiitto R. and Wulff, A. (2006). Responses of strawberry (Fagaria×ananassa) to supplemental UV-B radiation and selenium under filed conditions. Plant Soil. 28: 27-39.

Hosseinzadeh, S.R., Amiri, H. and Ismaili, A. (2016). Effect of vermicompost fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress. Photosynthetica.  54 (1): 87-92.

Hu, H. and Brown, P.H. (1993). Adsorption of boron by plants roots. Plant and Soil. 78: 49-58.

Hussain, M.M., Reid, J.B., Othman, H. and Gallagher, YN. (2000).  Growth and water use of faba beans (Vicia faba) in a sub-humid climate root and shoot adaptation to drought stress. Field Crop Research.  23: 1-17.

Jamali, S., Borzoei, A. and Paknezhad, F. (2014). Root characteristics, Na/K ratio and wheat seed yield of seven genotypes under salinity stress condition. Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology. 5(20):165-175.

KeLing, Hu., Ling, Z., JiTao, W. and Yang, Y. (2013). Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings under salt stress. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 82(3):193–197

Khalili Mahale, J. and Roshdi, M. (2008). Effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on quamtitative and qualitative characteristics of 704 silage corn in Khoy. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 24(2):281-292.

Kijne, J.W. (2006). Abiotic stress and water scarcity: Identifying and resolving conflicts from plant level to global level. Field Crops Research. 97:3-18.

Maurya, A.N., Ra, K.N. and Lal, S. (1977). Effects of boron and nitrogen fertilizers on radish (Raphanus sativus). Experimental Agriculture. 13: 301-303.

Miri Kodori, M., Mohammadi, S.A. and Bandehhagh, A. (2014). Effect of salinity on root characteristics of Sahara 3771 (salt tolerant) and Clipper (salt sensitive) barley varieties. Cereals Research. 4(2):175-184.

Munns, R. (1993). Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soil some dogmas and hypothesis. Plant Cell and Environment. 16: 15-24.

Munns, R. (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and wa-ter stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25: 239-250.

Noori Akandi, Z., Pirdashti, P., Yaghoubian, Y. and Ghasemi Omran, V. (2016). Investigation of antioxidant enzymes activity and photosynthetic pigments content changes of stevia medicinal plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica fungi under salt stress. Agricultural Crop Management. 18(3):639-653.

Parida, A.K. and Das, A.B. (2005). Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Safety. 60:324-349.

Puangbut, D., Jogloy,  S., Vorasoot, N., Akkasaeng, C., Kesmala Rao, T., Achaputi, C.N., Wright, G.C. and Patanothai, A. (2009). Association of root dry weight and transpiration efficiency of peanut genotypes under early  season drought. Agriculture Water Management. 96: 1460-1466.

Pukacka, S., Ratajczak, E., Kalemba, E. (2011). The protective role of selenium in recalcitrant Acer Saccharium L. seeds subjected to desiccation. Journal of Plant Physiology. 168: 220–225.

Rafeii, S. and Pakkish, Z. (2014). Effect of Boric acid spray on growth and development of ‘Camarosa’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(4): 1060-1063.

Rahmani, R.S. and Maali-Amiri, R. (2014). ROS signaling pathway and its role in environmental stresses. Genetics in the Third Millennium. 12(2): 3588-3603.

Seppänen, M., Turakainen, M. and Hartikainen, H. (2003). Selenium effects on oxidative stress in potato. Plant Science. 165: 311–319.

Shariyatmadari, M.H., Zamani, G. and Sayari, M.H. (2011). Effects of salt and foliar application of Fe on LAI, light absorption and relation this with sunflower seed yield. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 9(2):285-293.

Shelden, M.C., Roessner, U., Sharp, R.E., Tester, M. and Bacic, A. (2013). Genetic variation in the root growth response of barley genotypes to salinity stress. Funct. Plant Biology. 40(5): 516-530.

Yang, C.W., Xu, H.H., Wang, L.L., Liu, J., Shi, D.C. and Wang, D.L. (2009). Comparative effects of salt stress and alkali stress on the growth, photosynthesis, solute accumulation, and ion balance of barley plans. Photosynthetica. 47: 79-86.

Zayed, B.A., Salem, A.K.M. and El-Sharkawy, H.M. (2011). Effect of different micronutrient treatments on rice (Oriza sativa L.) growth and yield under saline soil conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences.7(2):179-184.

Zhu, Y.G., Pilon-Smits, E.A., Zhao, F.J., Williams, P.N. and Meharg, A.A. (2009). Selenium in higher plants: understanding mechanisms for bio fortification and phytoremediation. Trends in Plant Sciences. 14: 436–42.