بررسی میزان تولید اکسین و برخی رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی در سویه‌های سیانوباکتری هتروسیست دار جدا شده از شالیزارهای شرق استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فیزیولوژی مولکولی، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست فن آوری طبرستان، ساری، ایران

2 گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، ساری، ایران

3 گروه میکروبیولوژی نفت، پژوهشکده علوم کاربردی جهاد دانشگاهی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

سیانوباکتری‌ها از جمله میکروارگانیسم‌های فتوسنتز کننده گرم منفی می‌باشند. به‌دلیل تنوع بالای ترکیبات شیمیایی از جمله رنگیزه‌ها، ویتامین‌ها و آنزیم‌ها‌، در این گروه از ریز موجودات، در صنعت دارای کاربرد زیادی می باشند. مطالعات مختلف نشان داده است که سیانوباکتری‌ها می‌توانند سبب بهبود رشد گیاه از طریق اصلاح ساختار خاک، با آزادسازی پلی ساکاریدهای برون سلولی انسجام خاکدانه و نگهداشت آب گردند. تعداد بیشماری از باکتری‌های همزیست گیاهی، اکسین و ترکیبات وابسته به ایندولیک اسید را تولید می‌نمایند. نقش میکروارگانیسم‌های خاکزی به‌عنوان تحریک کننده رشد گیاهی به‌ویژه از طریق تولید هورمون‌های گیاهی ارتقاء دهنده رشد گیاهی در طبیعت بسیار گسترده است. گروه فیتوهورمون اکسینی از جمله گروهی از هورمون‌های گیاهی هستند که در تنظیم پروسه‌های متنوع بیولوژیکی نقش مهمی ایفا می نمایند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی توان تولید اکسین و برخی رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی  در سویه‌های هتروسیست دار جدا شده از شالیزارهای شرق استان مازندران می‌باشد. بعد از جمع آوری نمونه خاک و کشت سویه در محیط کشتBG110 ‌، به‌منظور انجام پروسه خالص سازی کشت مجدد در محیط کشت جامد و مایع انجام گرفت سپس سویه‌ها از لحاظ مورفولوژی شناسایی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که طیف وسیعی از باکتری‌های جدا شده دارای توانایی تولید اکسین به‌عنوان یک فاکتور موثر در بهبود رشد گیاه را دارا می‌باشند و غلظت رنگیزه کلروفیل و کاروتنوئیدها در اکثر سویه‌های جداسازی شده، با میزان متفاوت مشاهده گردید. هر چند پتانسیل هر سویه با توجه به نوع جنس و تنوع اکولوژیکی آن متفاوت می‌باشد. بالاترین میزان تولید کلروفیل، کاروتنوئیدها و اکسین به‌ترتیب در سویه‌های MGCY277 (Lyngbya diguetii)، MGCY497 (Nostoc ellipsosporum) و MGCY358 Anabaena variabilis)) مشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Production of auxin and some photosynthesis pigments in heterocystous cyanobacteria serovars isolated from paddy fields of eastern Mazandaran

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali shams 1
  • Gorbanali Nematzadeh 2
  • Neda Soltani 3
  • shadman shokravi 4
1 Genetic and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari, Iran
2 Faculty of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Department of Petroleum Microbiology, Research Institute of Applied Science, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan Iran
چکیده [English]

Cyanobacteria are gram-negative photosynthetic microorganisms. Because they contain a variety of chemical compounds such as pigments, vitamins, and enzymes, theses microorganisms have found many applications in the industry. Several studies have reported that cyanobacteria can improve the plant growth by improving the soil structure as they have potential to secrete extracellular polysaccharides that help in soil aggregation and water retention. Numerous plant-associated bacteria produce auxin and related indolic compounds. The role of microorganisms as plant growth stimulators is widespread in nature, especially in relation to the production of phytohormones. Auxins represent a group of plant hormones that are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. The aim of this research was to study the production capability of auxin and some photosynthesis pigments in heterocystous cyanobacteria serovars isolated from paddy fields in eastern part of Mazandaran. After collecting soil samples, cyanobacteria cultures were cultivated on a typical BG110 medium, for purification purposes, repeated sub-culturing was carried out on solidified and liquid medium before the strains were characterized morphologically. Results indicated that a great range of isolated cyanobacteria had the potential to produce auxin as a main factor for improving plant growth and there were significant differences in the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; however, potential of each species according to different ecological diversity and genus were different. Maximum chlorophyll, carotenoid, and auxin contents were observed in MGCY277 (Lyngbya diguetii), MGCY497 (Nostoc ellipsosporum), and MGCY358 (A nabaena variabilis) serovars, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • auxin
  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Phytohormone
Arshad, M. and Frankenberger, W.T. (1991). Microbial production of plant hormones. Plant and Soil. 133: 1-8.

Badeli, Z., Derakhshanpour, J. and Shokravi, Sh. (2012). Studying the effect

 

of salinity and limited irradiance in survival and growth of soil cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. FS 76 and Nostoc sp. FS 77. M.Sc Thesis On plant Physiology, Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon.

Barea, J.M., Navarro, E. and Montoya, E. (1976). Production of plant growth regulators by rhizosphere phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 40: 129-134.

Bergman, B., Gallon, J.R., Rai, A. N. and Stal, L.J. (1997). Nitrogen fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 19: 139–185.

Berman-Frank, I., Bidle, K.L., Haramaty, L. and Falkowski, P.G. (2004). The demise of the marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., via an autocatalyzed cell death pathway. Limnology and Oceanography. 49: 997–1005.

Buggeln, R.G. and Craigie, J.S. (1971). Evaluation of evidence for the presence of Indole-3-acetic acid in marine algae. Planta. 97: 173-178.

Chakigar, Sh., Shokravi, Sh. and Sateii, A. (2012). Study aclimation of the soil cyanobacteria Microchaete sp. FS13 to salt stress and salinity ammelioration potentiality at the laboratory condition. MS.c Thesis On plant Physiology, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan.

Dell’Amico, H., Cavalca, L. and Andreoni, V.  (2008). Improvement of Brassica napus growth under cadmium stress by cadmium resistant rhizobacteria. Soil Biology and Biochemistry.  40 (1): 74–84.

Desikachary, T.V.(1959). Cyanophyta. New Delhi, Indian council of agricultural research, New Delhi. pp.686.

DeVay, J.E., Lukezic, F.L.,   English, H. and Coplin, D.L. (1968). A biocide produced by pathogenic isolates of Pseudomonas syringae and its possible role in bacterial canker disease of peach trees. Phytopatology. 58: 95-101.

Dvornikova, T.P., Skryabin, G.K. and Suvorov, N.N. (1970). Enzymatic transformation of tryptamine by fungi. Microbiology. 39: 32-35.

Fett, W.F., Osman, S.F. and Dunn, M.F. (1987). Auxin production by plant-pathogenic pseudomonads and xanthomonads. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.53:1839–1845.

Gallon, J.R. (1992). Reconciling the incompatible: Nitrogen fixation and oxygen. New Phytologist. 122: 571–609.

Glickman, E. and Dessaux, Y. (1995). A critical examination of the specificity of the salkowski’s reagent for indolic compounds produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61: 793-796.

Gordon, S.A. and Weber, R.P.  (1951). Colorimetric estimation of indoleacetic Acid. Plant Physiology. 26: 192–195.

Hill, DR., Peat, A. and Potts, M.  (1994). Biochemistry and structure of the glycan secreted by desiccation-tolerant Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria). Protoplasma. 182: 126-148.

Hussain, A. and Hasnain, S.  (2009). Cytokinin production by some bacteria: Its impact on cell division in cucumber cotyledons. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3(11): 704-712.

Jensen, A. (1978). Chlorophylls and carotenoids. In: Hellebust JA, Craige IS. (ed). Hand book of Phycological Methods. Physiological and Biochemical Methods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 59-70.

Karthikeyan, N., Prasanna, R., Nain, L. and Kaushik, BD.  (2007). Evaluating the potential of plant growth promoting cyanobacteria as inoculants for wheat. European Journal of Soil Biology.  43: 23-30.

Kim, J. and Kim, J. (2008). Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. Microbiology. 36(4): 242-248.

Kirlwood, A.E., Buchheim, JA. , Buchheim, MA. and Henley, W.J.  (2008). Cyanobacterial diversity and halotolerance in a variable hypersaline environment. Microbial Ecology. 55: 453-465.

Kremer, R.J. and Kennedy, A.C. (1995). Rhizobacteria in weed management. Weed Technology 9. (In press). 

Libbert, E., Wichner, E., Duerst, W., Kunert, A., Manicki, R., Manteuffel, E., Riecke, H. and Schro¨der, R. (1968). Auxin content and auxin synthesis in sterile and nonsterile plants, with special regard to the influence of epiphytic bacteria, p. 213–230. In F. Wightma and G. Setterfield (ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, Carleton University, Ottawa: biochemistry and physiology of plant growth substances. The Runge Press Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Loper, J.E. and Schroth, M.N. (1986). Influence of bacterial source of indole-3acetic acid on root elongation of sugar beet. Phytopathology. 76: 386-389.

Maqubela, MP. , Mnkeni, P.N.S., Issa,  M.O.,  Pardo,  M.T., and  DAcqui,  L.P.  (2009). Nostoc cyanobacterial inoculation in South African agricultural soils enhances soil structure, fertility and maize growth. Plant Soil. 315: 79-92.

Marker, A.F.H. (1972). The use of acetone and methanol in the estimation of chlorophyll in the presence of phaeophytin. Freshwater Biology. 2: 361-385.

Mazor, G., Kidron G.J., Vonshak, A. and Abeliovich, A.  (1996).The role of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides in structuring desert microbial crusts. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.   21: 121-130.

Min, H. and Sherman, L.A. (2010). Hydrogen production by the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 under conditions of continuous light. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 76: 4293–4301.

Morris, R.O. (1986). Genes specifying auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis in  phytopathogens. Annual review. Plant Physiology. 37: 509–538.

Moussa, T.A.A. and Shanab, SM.M.  (2001). Impact of cyanobacterial toxicity stress on the growth activities of some phytopathogenic Fusarium sp. Arizona Journal Microbiology. 53:  267-281.

Okamoto, T., Isogai, Y. and Koizumi, T. (1976). Studies on plant growth regulators. Isolation of indole-3-acetic acid, phenylacetic acid and several plant growth inhibitors from etiolated seedling of Phaseolus. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 15: 159-163.

Paerl, H.W., Pinckney, J.L. and Steppe, T.F.  (2000). Cyanobacterial-bacterial mat consortia: examining the functional unit of microbial survival and growth in extreme environments. Environmental Microbiology. 2(1): 11-26.

Prasanna, R., Joshi, M., Rana, A. and Nain, L. (2010). Modulation of IAA production in cyanobacteria by tryptophan and light. Polish Journal of Microbiology. 59(2): 99-105.

Priyadarshani, I. and Biswajit, R. (2012). Commercial and industrial applications of micro algae. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization. 3 (4): 89–100.

Rai, M.K. (2006). Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers. Haworth Press, New York.

Rau, N., Mishra, V., Sharma, M., Das, M., Ahaluwalia, K. and Sharma, R.S. (2009). Evaluation of functional diversity in rhizobacterial taxa of a wild grass (Saccharum ravennae) colonizing abandoned fly ash dumps in Delhi urban ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 41(4):  813-821.

Rizk, M.A. (2006). Growth activities of the Sugarbeet Pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Rhizoctonia solani Khun and Fusarium verticilloides Sacc under cyanobacterial filtrate stress. Plant Patology Journal. 5(2): 212-215.

Rodriguez, A.A., Stella, A.A., Storni, M.M., Zulpa, G. and Zaccaro, M.C. (2006). Effects of cyanobacterial extracellular products and gibberellic acid on salinity tolerance in Oryza sativa L. Saline System.  2: 7.

Salkowski, E. (1885). Ueber das Verhalten der Skatolcarbonsa¨ure im Organismus. Zeitschr . Physiology and Chemistry. 9: 23–33.

Sergeeva, E., Liaimer, A. and Bergman, B. (2002). Evidence for production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid by cyanobacteria. Planta. 215: 229-238.

Shanab, S. (2001). Effect of fresh water cyanobacterial extracts on alkaloid production of the in vitro Solanum elaeagnifolium tissue culture. Arabic Journal of Biotechnology.  4 (1): 129-140.

Sharma, M., Rau, N., Mishra, V. and Sharma, R. S., (2005). Unexplored ecological significance of Saccharum munja. Species. 43: 22.

Shokravi, Sh., Soltani, N. and Baftehchi, L. (2008). Cyanobacteriology. Islamic Azad University. First express.p. 87.

Sinha, S.K., Verma, D.C. and Dwivedi, C.P. (2002). Role of green manure (Sesbania rostrata) and biofertilizers (Blue-green algae and Azotobacter) in rice-wheat cropping system in state of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plant. 8: 105-110.

Soltani, N., Siahbalaie, R. and Shokravi, Sh. (2010). Taxonomical characterization of Cyanobacterium   Fischerella sp. FS 18- Amultidisciplinary. Approach International Journal on Algae 1(9): 48-55.

Stirk, W.A., Ordog, V., Staden, J.V. and Jager, K. (2002). Cytokinin- and auxinlike activity in Cyanophyta and microalgae. Journal of Applied Phycology. 14: 215-221.

Surico, G., Comai, L. and Kosuge, T. (1984). Pathogenicity of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Savastanoi and their indole acetic acid-deficient mutant on olive and oleander. Physiological Plant Pathology. 74: 490-493.

Tandler, C.J. (1962). A naturally occurring crystalline indolyl derivative in Acetabularia. Naturwissenschafter. 40: 213-214.

Tang, Y.W. and Bonner, J. (1947). The enzymatic inactivation of indoleacetic acid. I. Some charasteristics of the enzyme contained in pea seedlings.  Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. 13: 11–25.

Tarko, T., Duda-Chodak, A. and Tuszyński, T. (2009). Simulation of phenolic compounds transformations and interactions in an in vitro model of the human alimentary tract. Food Science and Technology International. 15: 235–241.

Tassara, C., Zaccaro, M.C., Storni, M.M., Palma, M. and Zulpa, G. (2008). Biological control of lettuce white mold with cyanobacteria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology.  10: 487-492.

Vaishampayan,  A.,  Sinha,  R.P.,  Hader, D.P.,  Dey,  T.,  Gupta,  A.K.,  Bhan,  U. and  Rao,  A.L.  (2001). Cyanobacterial biofertilizers in rice agriculture. Botany Review. 67: 453-516.

Varalakshmi, P. and Malliga, P. (2012).. Evidence for production of indole-3-acetic acid from a fresh water cyanobacteria (Oscillatoria annae) on the growth of H. annus. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 3:1-15.

Wikstrom, P., Szwajcer, E., Brodelius, P., Nilsson, K. and Mosbach, K. (1982). Formation of keto acids from amino acids using immobilized bacteria and algae. Biotechnology Letters.  4: 153-158.

Williams, L.G. (1949). Growth regulating substances in Laminaria agardhii. Science. 110:169.

Zhuang, X., Chen, J., Shim, H. and Bai, Z. (2007). New advances in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for bioremediation. Environment International. 33(3): 406–413.