پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیک و فعالیت‌های آنتی اکسیدان در برگ پرچم و سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مرکز آموزش عالی شهید باکری میاندوآب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

این مطالعه به­منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی پس از گرده افشانی بر صفات زراعی و برخی از ویژگی­های فیزیولوژیکی برگ پرچم و سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم  به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با دو عامل (آبیاری و ژنوتیپ گندم) و سه تکرار اجرا گردید. دو سطح فاکتور آبیاری شامل-شاهد (آبیاری در تمام مراحل رشدی بر اساس شرایط کشت آبی) و تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری پس از گرده افشانی تا پایان دوره رشد) و سطوح ژنوتیپ­های گندم را (SHARK و TEVEE'S'//CROW/VEE'S: حساس، Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 و Sabalan: نیمه متحمل، Sardari HR-86 و Dogu88/Ghafghaz 7: متحمل به خشکی) تشکیل دادند و صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیکی اندازه گیری شدند. تنش خشکی باعث کاهش عملکرد دانه از طریق کاهش وزن هزار دانه شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به ژنوتیپ نیمه متحمل Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 و کمترین عملکرد مربوط به ژنوتیپ SHARK بود. نتایج تحقیق مشخص ساخت که در تیمارهای تحت تنش محتوای پروتئین محلول در برگ پرچم و سنبله نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین محتوا به ترتیب مربوط به ژنوتیپ‌های Sardari HR-86 و SHARK - و در سنبله بیشترین محتوای پروتئین محلول در ژنوتیپ Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 و کمترین آن مربوط به ژنوتیپ SHARK بود. بررسی­ها همچنین مشخص ساخت که فعالیت آنزیم­های پراکسیداز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز تحت تنش خشکی افزایش یافت. بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم‌ها در برگ پرچم در ژنوتیپ متحملSardari HR-86 و در سنبله در ژنوتیپ نیمه متحملManning/Sdv1/Dogu8  در آخرین مرحله نمونه برداری مشاهده شد. همچنین ژنوتیپ‌های حساس کمترین فعالیت آنزیمی را نشان دادند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده به نظر می­رسد که در ژنوتیپ نیمه متحمل Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8، فعال شدن سیستم دفاعی آنزیم­های پراکسیداز وسوپراکسیددیسموتاز نقش موثری در افزایش تحمل به تنش خشکی داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Physiological responses and anti-oxidative activities in flag leaves and spicules of wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Sharifi
  • Nayer Mohammadkhani
Shahid Bakeri Higher Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out for evaluation of the effects of drought stress after anthesis on agronomic characteristics and some physiological responses of flag leaves and spicules of different wheat genotypes using a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with two factors (irrigation and wheat genotypes) and three replicates. Two levels of irrigation involving control (full irrigated under water farming conditions) and drought stress (irrigation cut after anthesis until the end of growth period) as the first factor and different wheat genotypes (TEVEE'S'//CROW/VEE'S and Shark: drought sensitive, Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 and Sabalan: semi tolerant, Sardari HR-86 and Dogu88/Ghafghaz 7: tolerant to drought stress) as the second factor were considered and agronomic and physiological characters were measured. Drought stress decreased grain yield through decreasing 1000 grains weight. Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 semi tolerant genotype showed the highest and Shark genotype showed the lowest grain yields. Results showed that soluble protein content increased in flag leaves and spicules under stress compared to control. Sardari HR-86 and Shark genotypes showed the highest and lowest soluble protein content in flag leaves, respectively. The highest  and lowest soluble protein contents in spicules were observed in Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 and Shark genotypes, respectively. The study also showed that peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes activities increased under drought. The highest enzyme activity was observed in flag leaves of Sardari HR-86 tolerant genotype and in spicules of Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 semi tolerant genotype in the last step of sampling. Also, sensitive genotypes showed the lowest enzyme activities. Based on the obtained results it seems that in Manning/Sdv1/Dogu8 semi tolerant genotype, activation defense system of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes had a key role in improving tolerance to drought stress.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Enzyme
  • Protein
  • tolerance
  • Wheat

 

Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology. 105: 121-126.

Abdul Jalee, C., Sankar, B., Murali, P.V., Gomathinayagam, M., Lakshmanan, G. M. A., and Panneerselvam, R. (2008). Water deficit stress effects on reactive oxygen metabolism in Catharanthus roseus; Impacts on Ajmalicine Accumulation. Colloids and Surfaces. 62: 105-111.

Abedi, T. and Pakniyat, H. (2010). Antioxidant enzyme changes in response to drought stress in ten cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Czech journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 46(1): 27- 34.

Abdullah, A., and Ghamdi, A. L. A. (2009). Evaluation of oxidative stress in two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars in response to drought. International Journal of Agricalture and Biology. 11: 7-12.

Ahmadizadeh, M., Valizadeh, M., Zaefizadeh, M. and Shahbazi, H. (2011). Antioxidative protection and electrolyte leakage in durum wheat under drought stress condition. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 7(3): 236-246.

AL-Ghamdi, A. A. (2009). Evaluation of oxidative stress tolerance in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in response to drought. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 11: 7-12.

Alexieva, V., Sergiev, I., Mapelli, S. and Karanov, E. (2001). The effect of drought and ultraviolet radiation on growth and stress markers in pea and wheat. Plant, Cell and Environment. 24: 1337-1344.

Amjad, H., Noreen, B., Javed, A. and Nayyer, I. (2011). Differential changes in antioxidants, proteases, and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat genotypes under different levels of water deficit conditions. Plant Physiology Biochemistry 49: 178-185.

Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M. R. (2007). Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Exprimental Botany. 59: 206-216.

Ashraf, M. (2009). Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances. 27: 84-93.

Behbodi, S. J. and Ahmadi, A. (2010). Study protein pofiles of wheat during germination under abiotic non-stress conditions. M.Sc. thesis in (field of study area), Imam Khomeini International University, 197p.

Bian, S. and Jiang, Y. (2009). Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns in leaves and roots of Kentucky Bluegrass in response to drought stress and recovery. Scientia Horticulturae. 120: 264-270.

Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.

Chance, B. and Machly, A. C. (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology. 2: 764-775.

Del Rio, D., Stewart, A. J. and Pellegrini, N. (2005). A review of studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 15(4): 316-328.

Demiral, T. and Türkan, I. (2004). Does exogenous glycine betaine affect antioxidative system of rice seedlings under NaCl treatment? Journal of Plant Physiology. 161: 1089-1100.

Dhindsa, P. and Thorpe, T. A. (1981). Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 126: 93-101.

Ebrahimi, A., Naqvi, M.R. and Sabokdast, M. (2010). Comparison of different species of barely landraces in terms of chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein and enzyme. Iranian Journal of Crop Science. 41(1): 57-65.

Farooq, M., Basra, S. M. A., Wahid, A. and Rehman, H. (2009a). Exogenously applied nitric oxide enhances the drought tolerance in fi ne grain aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Agronomy Crop Science. 195: 254–61.

Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. and Basra, S. M. A. (2009b). Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 29: 185–212.

Gill, S. S. and Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 48: 909-930.

Hashemi Nasab, H., Assad, M. T., Aliakbari, A. and Sahhafi, R. (2012). Influence of drought stress on oxidative damage and antioxidant defense systems in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Science. 4(8): 20-30.

Hassibi, P., Moradi, F. and Nabipour, M. (2007). Screening of rice genotypes for low temperature stress-using chlorophyll fluorescence. Iranian Journal of Crop Science. 9(1): 14-31.

     Hojati, M., Modarres-Sanavy, A. M. M., Karimi, M. and Ghanati, F. (2011). Responses of growth and antioxidant systems in Carthamus tinctorius L. under water deficit stress. Acta Physiologia Plantarum. 33: 105-112.

Khayatnezhad, M., Zaeifizadeh, M. and Gholamin, R. (2011). Effect of end-season drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence and content of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) in susceptible and tolerant genotypes of durum wheat. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(30): 6397-6406.

Levitt, J. (1980). Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Academic, New York. 497 p.

Li, X., Cai, J., Liu, F., Dai, T., Cao, W. and Jiang. D. (2014a). Cold priming drives the sub-cellular antioxidant systems to protect photosynthetic electron transport against subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat. Plant Physiology Biochemistry. 82: 34–43.

Liu, F., Shahnazari, A., Andersen, M.N., Jacobsen, S.E. and Jensen, C.R. (2006). Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use effi ciency. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(14): 3727–35.

Moussa, H. and Abdel-Aziz, S.M. (2008). Comparative response of drought tolerant and drought sensitive maize genotypes to water stress. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 1: 31-36.

Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1987). Purification of ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts: its inactivation in ascorbate depleted medium and reactivation by monodehydroascorbate radical. Plant Cell Physiology. 28: 131-140.

Ozkur, O., Ozdemir, F., Bor, M. and Turkan, I. (2009). Physiochemical and antioxidant responses of the perennial Xerophyte Capparis ovata Desf. to Drought. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 66: 487-492.

Sato, F., Yoshioka, H., Fujiwara, T., Higashio, H., Uragami, A. and Tokuda, S. (2004). Physiological response of cabbage plug seedlings to water stress during low-temperature storage in darkness. Horticultural Science. 101: 349-357.

Siosemardeh, A., Ahmadi, A. and Poustini, K. (2003). Stomata and nonstopmatal limitations to photosynthesis and their relationship with drought resistance in wheat cultivars. Iranian journal of agricultural science. 34(4): 4p.

Shao, H. B., Liang, Z. S. and Shao, M. A. (2006). Osmotic regulation of 10 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes at soil water deficits. Colloids of Surfases.  47: 32-139.

Stewart, C.R. (1980). The mechanism of abscisic acid-induced proline accumulation in barley leaves. Plant Physiology. 66(2):230-233.

Terzi, R. and Kadioglu, A. (2006). Drought stress tolerance and the antioxidant enzyme system in Ctenanthe setosa. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica. 48: 89-96.

Verma, K. K., Singh, M., Gupta, R. K. and Verma, C.L. (2014). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes and growth responses of Jatropha curcas during soil flooding. Turkish Journal of Botany. 38: 130-40.

Yang, Y., Han, C., Liu, Q., Lin, B.J. and Wang, J. (2008). Effect of drought and low lighton growth and enzymatic antioxidant system of Piceaasperata seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 30: 433-440.

Yoshimura, K., Yabute, Y., Ishikawa, T. and Shigeoka, S. (2000). Expression of spinach ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes in response to oxidative stresses. Plant Physiology. 123: 223-233.

Zhuang, L. and Chen, Y. N. (2006). Physiological responses of three contrasting plant species of groundwater level changes in aria environment. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 48: 520-110.