اثر تنش‌ خشکی و کاربرد زئولیت بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی، فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی و عملکرد کمی و کیفی ژنوتیپ‌های کلزا (Brassica napus L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران.

2 پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

4 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد زئولیت بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک، فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی و عملکرد دانه و روغن گیاه کلزا در شرایط تنش‌خشکی آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل-اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقات موسسه اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج اجرا شد. تنش‌خشکی در سه سطح (آبیاری پس از 40، 60 و 80 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی به‌ترتیب به عنوان عدم تنش، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید) و کاربرد زئولیت در دو سطح (صفر و 10 تن در هکتار زئولیت) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت­های اصلی و ژنوتیپ­های کلزا (لاین KR4 و Eldo و ارقام GKH305 و Anatol) در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش‌خشکی، در تمامی سطوح زئولیت و ژنوتیپ‌های کلزا، سبب کاهش آب نسبی برگ و افزایش درجه­حرارت سایه‌انداز و مقاومت روزنه­ای، همچنین میزان قندهای محلول و پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی کاتالاز و پراکسیداز و میزان مالون دی آلدئید در برگ‌های جوان بالای بوته گردید. دو تنش متوسط و شدید خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد دانه روغن شد. با افزایش شدت تنش کارایی زئولیت در کاهش اثرات منفی تنش افزایش یافت و استفاده از آن در شرایط اعمال تنش متوسط و شدید باعث کاهش معنی‌دار در فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی­اکسیدانی کاتالاز و پراکسیداز، همچنین کاهش میزان قندهای محلول و غلظت پرولین شد. کاربرد زئولیت موجب افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد دانه در تیمار عدم تنش، تنش متوسط و شدید و افزایش عملکرد. در بین ژنوتیپ‌ها لاین KR4 و رقم GKH305 به‌ترتیب در صورت استفاده و عدم استفاده از زئولیت بالاترین عملکرد دانه را داشتند ولی با اعمال تنش متوسط و شدید رقم Anatol کم‌ترین میزان خسارت و بالاترین عملکرد را در بین ژنوتیپ­های مورد بررسی به خود اختصاص داد. براساس نتایج به‌دست آمده، استفاده از زئولیت در تمامی سطوح تنش سبب افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد کلزا شد که با افزایش محدودیت آبی، کارایی آن بالاتر رفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of drought stress and zeolite application on physiological traits, and anti-oxidant enzymes activity, and qualitative and quantitative performance of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • omid lotfifar 1
  • leila Mottaghi 2
  • amirhossein Shiranirad 3
  • samaneh Mottaghi 4
1 Department of Agricultural Science, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Abouraihan Campous, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, AREEO, Karaj, Iran
4 Department of Agricultural Science, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of zeolite on some physiological characteristics, antioxidant enzymes activity, seed and oil yields of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) under drought stress condition, a split plot factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in Seed and Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj. Three drought stress levels (irrigation after 40, 60, and 80% soil water discharge), were applied as non-stress, low stress, and high stress, respectively and the zeolite at two levels (0 and 10 tons per hecater) was applied in a factorial design in main plots while genotypes of rapeseed (Line KR4 and Eldo and GKH 305 and Anatol cultivars) were used in sub-plots. Results revealed that in all zeolite and rapeseed genotype treatments, drought stress caused a decrease in relative water content, canopy temperature, and stomatal resistant and decreased soluble sugar, proline content, and antioxidants activity (catalase and peroxidase) and malondealdehyde in top young leaves in plant. The moderate and severe drought stress led to reduction in seed yield and  oil yield, respectively. With an increase in stress level, so did the efficiency of zeolite in reducing negative effects of stress and its application under moderate and high stress resulted in significant reductions in catalase and peroxidase antioxidant activities and also reduction in soluble sugars and proline concentration. Application of zeolite increased seed yield significantly under non-stress, moderate and high stress treatments and improved oil yield. Among genotypes under study, KR4 line and GKH305 cultivar had the highest seed yield in case of application and non-application of zeolite, respectively but under moderate and severe stress, Anatol had the lowest loss and highest yield. According to the findings, using zeolite in all drought stress caused a significant decrease in rapeseed yield and with an increase in water limitation, so did the efficiency of zeolite.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Catalase
  • Malondealdehyde
  • Peroxidase
  • Proline
  • water stress
  • Zeolite
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