تأثیر همزمان کیفیت بذر، تراکم کاشت و کود نیتروژن بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکردی گندم (.Triticum aestivum L)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی گرگان، ایران

2 بخش زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

3 گروه علوم گیاهی دانشگاه آریزونا،‌ آمریکا

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر فرسودگی بذر، تراکم کاشت و مصرف کود نیتروژن بر صفات کمی و کیفی گندم، آزمایشی در شهرستان گرگان استان گلستان به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب بلوک کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل مصرف نیتروژن در 3 سطح مقدار توصیه شده، 15 و 30 درصد بیشتر از مقدار توصیه شده (به‌ترتیب 125، 75/143 و 5/162 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) و تراکم کاشت در دو سطح 350 و 420 بوته در مترمربع که در کرت‌های اصلی قرار داشتند و کیفیت بذر در 4 سطح شاهد، 15، 30 و 45 ساعت فرسودگی تسریع شده در کرت‌های فرعی بود. عملکرد دانه، عملکرد پروتئین و نشاسته تحت اثر سه‌گانه فرسودگی بذر، تراکم کاشت و کود نیتروژن معنی‌دار شدند. با افزایش سطوح فرسودگی دانه، کاهش معنی‌دار آماری در همه صفات مورد مطالعه (به غیر از درصد پروتئین و درصد نیتروژن دانه) مشاهده شد. کاربرد کود نیتروژن 30 درصد بیشتر از مقدار توصیه شده، و همچنین تراکم کاشت 420 بوته در مترمربع باعث افزایش معنی‌دار درصد پروتئین و درصد نیتروژن دانه شدند. بالاترین میانگین عملکرد پروتئین در ترکیب تیماری‌ 350 بوته مترمربع در سطح فرسودگی 30 ساعت و سطوح کود نیتروژن 15 درصد بیشتر از مقدار توصیه شده و همچنین در ترکیب تیماری 420 بوته در مترمربع در سطح فرسودگی 45 ساعت و سطح کود نیتروژن 30 درصد بیشتر از مقدار توصیه شده بدست آمد. به طور کلی فرسودگی بذر باعث کاهش صفات کمی و کیفی گردید ولی کاربرد کود نیتروژن بیشتر با بهبود صفات کیفی، میزان افت کیفیت را از این طریق بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The simultaneous effect of seed quality, plant density, and nitrogen fertilizer on physiological and yield characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Ajamnorozi 1
  • M.R. Dadashi 1
  • A. Faraji 2
  • H. Mosanaiey 1
  • M. Pessarakli 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Gloestan, Gorgan, Iran
3 Plant Sciences Department, University of Arizona, U.S.A.
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of seed aging, plant density, and nitrogen fertilization on physiological and yield characteristics of wheat, an experiment was performed as a split plot based on RCBD with four replications in 2015-2016. Experimental factors were three levels of nitrogen in recommended amount, 15 and 30 percent more than the recommended amount (125, 143.75, and 162.5 kgN.ha-1, respectively) and plant density at two levels, namely 350 and 420 plants per square meter which were the main plots and seed quality at four levels including control, 15, 30, and 45 hours of accelerated aging was subplots. Grain yield, protein and starch performance were significant under the triple effects of seed quality, planting density, and nitrogen fertilizer. With increasing levels of seed aging significant reduction were observed in all traits (except grain protein and nitrogen percentage). Application of nitrogen fertilizer 30 percent more than the recommended dose, as well as plant density of 420 plants per square meter significantly increased grain protein and nitrogen percentage. The highest average protein yield was achieved in the combined treatment of 350 plant square meters at 30-hour aging level and nitrogen fertilizer at 15 percent more than the recommended dose and also in combined treatment of 420 plant square meters, 45-hour aging level, and the nitrogen level 30 percent more than the recommended dose. Generally, seed deterioration reduced its quantitative and qualitative characteristics but more nitrogen fertilizer improved quality traits, thereby improving the quality loss.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cereal
  • Grain yield
  • Protein
  • Seed deterioration
  • Starch

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