بررسی تنش خشکی بر روی عملکرد و کیفیت هشت رقم سویا (Glycin max L.) در منطقه سیستان

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی زاهدان، ایران

2 دانشکده علوم پایه، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زاهدان، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق جهت بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر روی عملکرد و کیفیت هشت رقم سویا در سال زراعی
94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی شهرستان زهک اجرا شد. این آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد.کرت اصلی شامل دو سطح آبیاری کامل (شاهد) و تنش خشکی (قطع آب در فاز زایشی) و کرت فرعی شامل ارقام سویا PE، HT، V292، سحر، M7، DPX کتول، M9، ویلیامز بود. نتایج نشان داد که  اثر تنش خشکی بر کلیه صفات مورد آزمایش از جمله ارتفاع بوته، طول غلاف، تعداد غلاف در بوته، دمای کانوپی، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد کوانتومی و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار شد و روی تعداد دانه در غلاف و شاخص برداشت تاثیر معنی داری نداشت .. تیمار رقم نیز به طور معنی‌داری بر کلیه صفات کمی و کیفی در گیاه سویا تاثیرگذار بود، به‌طوری که بیشترین عملکرد دانه از رقم PE بدست آمد در حالی‌که تأثیر آن روی صفات فنولوژیکی، طول غلاف و دمای کانوپی معنی‌دار نبود. بر همکنش تنش خشکی و رقم بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد کوآنتومی و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار و بر بقیه ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی معنی‌دار نشد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار آبیاری کامل (شاهد)، و رقم PE مشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought stress on yield and quality of eight cultivars of soybean (Glycin max L.) in Sistan region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Mehraban 1
  • Omid Azizian Shermeh 2
  • Afsaneh Kamali daljoo 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
2 Faculty of Science, Young Researchers Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy, Young Researchers Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to check the effect of drought stress on yield and quality of eight cultivars of soybean in the Natural Resources and Agriculture Research Farm of Zehak during the crop year 2013-2014. The study was conducted based on a split plot randomized complete bock design with tree iterations. The main plot involved two irrigation levels (control) and drought (water stress in reproductive phase) and the subplots included soybean cultivars PE, HT, V292, Sahar, M7, DPX Katool, M9, and Williams. The results showed that the effect of drought stress on all traits including plant height, pod length, number of pods per plant, canopy temperature, grain weight, quantum yield, and grain yield were significant. On the other hand, the number of seeds per pod and harvest index were not significantly affected by draught stress. The effect of cultivar was also significant on all qualitative and quantitative traits so that the highest grain yield was obtained from PE while its impact on phonological traits, pod length, and canopy temperature was not significant. The interaction of draught stress on plant height, number of pods per plant, quantum yield, seed yield, and the rest of the properties under study was not significant. The highest grain yield was observed in full irrigation (control) and PE cultivar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy temperature
  • Cultivar
  • soybean
  • Stress
  • Yield
 Albarrak,G.H. (2000). Effect of irrigation regimes, planting data Nitrogen level on Brassica napus.Cultivars Agronomy Journal.7(1):87-89.

Allyaji, H.and Shekari, F.V. (2009). Zrat Oilseeds and physiology. Tabriz Amidi publications printing. Page 320.

Aminifar, C., Byglvyy, MH., Mohsen Abadi, Gh.R. and Smyzadh, H.A. (2010). The effect of irrigation on yield, yield components and water efficiency T.215 soybean varieties. Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering. 3 (11): 24-34

Anjum, Sh.A., Xie, X.Y., Wang, Ch., Saleem, M.F., Man, Ch. and Lei, W. (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6: 2026-2032.

Asmail Khani behben, H., Nkhzry Mqadm, AS. and Dadash, M.R. (2011). The effects of irrigation and nitrogen application on grain yield and reproductive traits of soy road. Journal of Crop Sciences. 4 (14): 80-67.

Backhausen, J.E., Kelin, M., Klocke, M., Jung, S. and Scheibe, R. (2005). Salt tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Desiree) plants depends on light intensity and air humidity. Plant Science. 169: 229-237.

Bagheri, M. (2011) .Brrsy physiological indices of assessing drought-resistant wheat. Master's thesis, Islamic Azad University.

Balaguer, L., Pugnaire, F.I., Martinz-Ferri, E., Armas, C., Valladares, F. and Manrigue, E. (2002). Ecophysiological significance of chlorophyll loss and reduced photochemical efficiency under extreme avidity in stipa tenacissimal. Plant and Soil. 240: 343-352.

Fanaee, H. (2008) .brrsy affect yield and some agronomic traits and drought stress potassium. Proceedings of the Eleventh Congress of Crop Physiology Iran. 4047-4050.

Galeshi, S.,Torabi, B., Rasam, GH. A., Rahemi Karizaki, A., and Barzger, A.B.  )2009(. Stress andstress coping in cultivated plants. (Translated by). Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Press. 307 Pp. (in Persian)

Habibi, D. and Mashhadi Akbar Bojar, D. (2002). Determine the amount of antioxidant enzyme activity as anti-stress enzymes in different varieties of sunflower nuts, Islamic Azad University of Karaj project. 

Kochaky, A., and Sarmadnya, Q. (2011). Agricultural crop physiology. Mashhad  Ferdowsi  University Publications.

Lu, C., Qiu, N., Lu, Q., Wang, B. and Kuango, T. (2002). Does salt stress lead to increased susceptibility of photosystem II to photoinhibition and changes in photosynthetic pigment composition in halophyte Sueda salsa grown outdoors? Plant Science. 163: 1063-1068.

Mamnuei, A. and Sayed Sharifi, R. (2009). Effects of water stress on chlorophyll fluorescence indices and the amount of proline in six barley genotypes and its relation with canopy temperature and performance. Plant Biology. 2 (5): 62-51.

Mirakhori, M., Paknejad, F., Ardakani, M.R., Nazeri, P. and Purjahromi, M.A. )2000(. The effect of stress on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters deficit and Mhlvl_Pashy methanol, relative water content and chlorophyll content of soybean cells. Iranian Journal of Crop Preceding Studies. 8 (3): 541-531.

Mirakhuri, M., Paknejad, F., Ardakani, M.R., observer, C. and Jahromi, M.A. (2009). Effects of Drought Stress and Methanol on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, relative water content and chlorophyll content of soybean cells. Iranian Journal of Crop Preceding Studies. 8(3): 541-531.

Moffatt, J., Sears, M. R. G. and Paulsen, G. (1990). Wheat high temperature tolerance during reproductive growth. I: Evaluation by chlorophyll fluorescence. Crop Science. 30(4):881-885.

Neocleous, D. and Vasilakakis, M. (2007). Effects of NaCl stress on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. "Autumn Bliss"). Scientia Horticulturae. 112: 282-289.

Niknami, M. (2008). Adapted response osmotic If a grain yield at different growth stages Australian Journal. 57 (2): 221-229.

 Stepien, P., Klobus, G. (2006) Water relations and photosynthesis in Cucumis sativus L. leaves under salt stress. Biologia Plantarum. 50(4): 610-616.

Sudhir, P. and Murthy, S.D.S. (2004) Effects of salt stress on basic processes of photosynthesis. Photosynthetica. 42(4): 481-486.

Yaghobian, E., Pirdshti, H. A., Fizei Asl, V. and Mohamadi Goltapeh, A. (2012). The effect of Mycorrhizal symbiosis on the quantum efficiency of photosystem II in wheat under drought stress. Twelfth Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breedig Sciences of Iran, Karaj, Islamic Azad University of Karaj.