اثر تراکم بوته بر برخی پاسخ‌های رشدی، فیزیولوژیکی و فعالیت‌ آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی گیاه نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) تحت سطوح مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد ورامین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ورامین، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف آبیاری و تراکم بوته بر برخی پاسخ‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و فعالیت‌ آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانی رقم نخود‌هاشم، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده با طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در منطقه گنبدکاووس در سال زراعی92-1391 اجراء شد. عامل اصلی شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری (شرایط دیم بدون آبیاری، آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و آبیاری در زمان پر شدن نیام‌ها) و عامل فرعی شامل تراکم‌های مختلف 20، 30، 50 و 70 بوته در متر مربع بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر تمامی صفات به‌جز تعداد روز تا 50 درصد گلدهی و ارتفاع بوته معنی‌دار بود اما تراکم تنها بر خصوصیات تعداد روز تا 50 درصد گلدهی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص کلروفیل برگ اثر معنی‌دار داشت. در این آزمایش آبیاری موجب افزایش معنی‌دار محتوی رطوبت نسبی و شاخص کلروفیل برگ نسبت به شرایط دیم گشت اما باعث کاهش معنی‌دار در میزان پروتئین دانه، فعالیت آنزیم‌های سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز و کاتالاز شد. بالاترین درصد پروتئین دانه در کشت بدون آبیاری مشاهده شد. همچنین بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه به‌ترتیب در سطوح آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و شرایط دیم به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 1602 و 1014 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد. در سطوح فاکتور تراکم نیز بالاترین عملکرد دانه توسط تراکم 70 بوته در متر مربع و کمترین عملکرد دانه در تراکم 20 بوته در متر مربع مشاهده گردید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of plant density on some growth and physiological responses, and antioxidant enzymes activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under different irrigation levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Barzali 1
  • Mohammad Nasri 2
  • Maziyar Karimi Far 2
1 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
2 Agronomy Department, Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch, Varamin, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of different levels of plant density and irrigation on some morphologic and physiologic responses and antioxidants activities in chickpea cv. Hashem, an experiment was conducted at Goonbad-e-Kavoos region during 2012-2013 cropping season. Treatments were arranged as split plot in randomized complete block design with four replications. Different irrigation regime levels (rainfed without irrigation, irrigation at flowering stage, and irrigation during pod filling stage) were assigned to main plots and sub-plots comprised of different plant densities (20, 30, 50, and 70 plants/m2). Results showed that different irrigation regimes significantly affected traits except for days to 50% flowering and plant height but plant density factor had significant impacts only on days to 50% flowering, plant height, days to physiologic maturity, seed yield, biologic yield, and leaf chlorophyll index. Results showed that irrigation caused significant increase in leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll index while it decreased grain protein content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Maximum and minimum grain protein contents were produced in no-irrigation and irrigation during pod filling stage, respectively. Meanwhile, the maximum and minimum grain yield was gained by irrigation at flowering stage and rainfed without irrigation, respectively. Under plant density levels, the maximum and minimum grain yield was produced in 70 plants/m2 and 20 plants/m2, respectively. Irrigation at flowering stage × 70 plants/m2 had the highest grain yield among all treatments of the study.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Enzyme
  • Grain yield
  • Leaf chlorophyll index
  • Plant density
  • Supplementary irrigation
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