ارزیابی برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی میوه زغال‌اخته طی مراحل پایانی رشد

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

2 گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر به مصرف میوه زغال‌اخته که سرشار از آنتی‌اکسیدان است، توجه بیشتری شده است. این پژوهش در سال 1394، به منظور ارزیابی تغییرات برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی میوه زغال‌اخته در طی مراحل پایانی رشد، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی انجام گرفت. میوه‌ها در 4 زمان مختلف از 4 جهت اصلی (شمال، جنوب، شرق و غرب) درخت برداشت و بلافاصله به آزمایشگاه منتقل شدند. پارامترهای مختلف از قبیل ابعاد (طول و عرض)، وزن، سفتی بافت میوه، pH عصاره میوه، میزان مواد جامد محلول کل، اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون کل، نسبت مواد جامد محلول به اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون کل، محتوای اسید آسکوربیک، ترکیبات فنلی کل، فلاونوئیدها وآنتوسیانین‌های کل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی کل میوه‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثر زمان‌های مختلف برداشت بر تمام صفات مورد ارزیابی در سطح احتمال 5 درصد معنی‌دار بود. با گذشت زمان و رسیدگی میوه میزان وزن، ابعاد، pH، مواد جامد محلول کل، نسبت مواد جامد محلول به اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون کل، محتوای فلاونوئیدها و آنتوسیانین‌های کل افزایش و میزان سفتی، اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون کل، ترکیبات فنلی کل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی کل کاهش یافت. مقدار اسید آسکوربیک نیز در طول رسیدن میوه افزایش ولی در آخرین برداشت مجدداً مقدار آن کاهش یافت. با توجه به تغییرات صفات مورد ارزیابی به نظر می‌رسد مناسب‌ترین زمان برداشت میوه برای ژنوتیپ مورد نظر، برداشت سوم باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of some quantitative and qualitative properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruit during the last stages of maturation

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi panahi 1
  • Jafar Hajilou 1
  • Nader Chaparzadeh 2
1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani Universiy, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid by consumers to cornelian cherry fruit, which is rich in antioxidants. This research was carried out based on a randomized complete block design for evaluation of the variations in some quantitative and qualitative properties of cornelian cherry fruits during the last stages of maturation in 2015. Fruits were harvested at 4 different times and from 4 main geographical directions of the tree and were then immediately transferred to the laboratory. Several parameters such as dimension (length and width), weight, firmness, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, and total antioxidant capacity of the fruits were investigated. The results showed that the effect of different harvest dates on all traits was significant (P<0.05) while no significant differences were observed between replications. During fruit ripening, weight, dimension, pH, TSS, TSS/TA ratio, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins increased while firmness, TA, total phenol, and total antioxidant capacity decreased. The content of ascorbic acid increased during fruits ripening, but it reduced again in the last harvest. The results indicate that the third harvest time (16.63 Brix level) can be the best harvest date for this genotype.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant Capacity
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Cornelian cherry
  • Harvest date
  • Qualitative traits

Abbott, j.A. )1999.( Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 15(3): 207–225.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C.L.W.T. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie Food Science and Technology. 28(1): 25–30.

Burdon, J., McLeod, D., Lallu, N., Gamble, J., Petley, M. and Gunson, A. (2004). Consumer evaluation of “Hayward” kiwifruit of different at-harvest dry matter contents. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 34(3): 245-255.

Chang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. and Chern, J. C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 10(3): 178-182.

Demir, F. and Kalyoncu, I.H. (2003). Some nutritional, pomological and physical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.). Journal of Food Engineering. 60(3): 335–341.

Drogoudi, P.D. and Pantelidis, G. (2011). Effects of position on canopy and harvest time on fruit physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 129(4): 752–760.

Femenia, A., Sánchez, E.S., Simal, S. and Rosselló, C. (1998). Developmental and ripening‐related effects on the cell wall of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 77(4):487-493.

Ghasemi, Y., Nematzadeh, G.A., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A. and Dehpour, A.A. (2012). Influence of harvesting date on some physicochemical properties of nectarine leaf and fruit. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 6(43): 5552-5556.

Gueleryuez, M., Bolat, I. and Pirlak, L. (1998). Selection of table cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) types in Çoruh Valley. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Forestry. 22:357–364.

Gunduz, K., Saracoglu, O., Özgen, M. and Serce, S. (2013). Antioxidant, physical and chemical characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.) at different stages of ripeness. Acta Scientiarum Polonorom-Hortorum Cultus. 12(4):59-66.

Hassanpour, H., Hamidoghli, Y., Hajilou, J. and Adlipour, M. (2011). Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes in Iran. Scientia Horticulturae. 129(3):459–463.

Horwitz, W., Senzel, A., Reynolds, H. and Park, D.L. (1975). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (Ed. 12).P.70.

Hubbard, N. L., Pharr, D. M., and Huber, S. C. (1991). Sucrose phosphate synthase and other sucrose metabolizing enzymes in fruits of various species. Physiologia Plantarum. 82(2):191-196.‏

Iglesias, I. and Echeverria, G. (2009). Differential effect of cultivar and harvest date on nectarine colour, quality and consumer acceptance. Scientia Horticulturae. 120(1):41–50.

Kalt, W. (2005). Effects of production and processing factors on major fruit and vegetable antioxidants. Journal of Food Science. 70(1):11-19.‏

Kulkarni, A.P. and Aradhya, S.M. (2005). Chemical changes and antioxidant activity in pomegranate arils during fruit development. Food Chemistry. 93(2):319-324.

Leontowicz, M., Leontowicz, H., Drzewiecki, J., Jastrzebski, Z., Haruenkit, R., Poovarodom, S. and Gorinstein, S. (2007). Two exotic fruits positively affect rat’s plasma composition. FoodChemistry. 102(1):192-200.‏

Mahmood, T., Anwar, F., Bhatti, I.A. and Iqbal, T. (2013). Effect of maturity on proximate composition, phenolics and antioxidant attributes of cherry fruit. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 45(3): 909-914.

Özgen, M., Serçe, S. and Kaya, C. )2009(. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of anthocyanin-rich Morus nigra and Morus rubra fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 119(3):275-279.

Pantelidis, G.E., Vasilakakis, M., Manganaris, G.A. and Diamantidis, G. )2007(. Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry. 102(3):777–783.

Payasi, A., Mishra, N.N., Chaves, A.L.S. and Singh, R. (2009). Biochemistry of fruit softening: an overview. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 15(2):103-113.‏

Piscopo, A., Romeo, F.V., Petrovicova, B. and Poiana, M. (2010). Effect of the harvest time on kernel quality of several almond varieties (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) DA.Webb). Scientia Horticulturae. 125(1):41–46.

Pressey, R. and Avants, J.K. (1978). Difference in polygalacturonase composition of clingstone and freestone peaches. Journal of Food Science. 43(5): 1415-1417.

Remorini, D., Tavarini, S., Degl’Innocenti, E., Loreti, F., Massai, R. and Guidi, L. (2008). Effect of rootstocks and harvesting time on the nutritional quality of peel and flesh of peach fruits. Food Chemistry. 110(2): 361–367.

Robards, K., Prenzler, P.D., Tucker, G., Swatsitang, P. and Glover, W. (1999). Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Food Chemistry. 66(4): 401-436.

Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 16(3): 144-158.

Tosun, I., Ustun, N.S. and Tekguler, B. (2008). Physical and chemical changes during ripening of blackberry fruits. Scientia Agricola. 65(1): 87-90.

Tural, S. and Koca, I. (2008). Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.) grown in Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae. 116(4): 362-366.


Wrolstad, R.E. (1993). Color and pigment analyses in fruit products. Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State University. 1-17.

Yilmaz, K.U., Ercisli, S., Zengin, Y., Sengul, M. and Kafkas, E.Y. (2009). Preliminary characterisation of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes for their physico-chemical properties. Food Chemistry. 114(2): 408–412.

Yousefpour Dokhanieh, A.,Soleimani Aghdam, M.,Rezapour Fard, J. and Hassanpour, H. (2013). Postharvest salicylic acid treatment enhances antioxidant potential of cornelian cherry fruit. Scientia Horticulturae. 154: 31-36.