بررسی برخی از شاخص‌های رشد و ترکیبات آنتی‌اکسیدانی گیلاس وحشی (Cerasus arium L.) با توجه به نقش اکولوژیک ارتفاع از سطح دریا در جنگل‌های مدیریت شده رامسر

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جنگلداری، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 گروه جنگلداری، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

3 گروه کشاورزی، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

گیلاس وحشیL. Cerasus avium از گونه‌های پهن برگ و بومی بسیار با ارزشی است که به صورت پراکنده یا به صورت گروه‌های کوچک در جنگل‌های شمال ایران حضور دارد. این تحقیق به منظور مطالعه اثر ارتفاع از سطح دریا بر روی برخی از ویژگی‌های رشد گونه گیلاس وحشی در طبقات ارتفاعی مختلف صورت گرفت. بدین‌منظور بعد از جنگل گردشی‌های متعدد در سری‌های 1 و 3 جنگل‌های نسارود رامسر تعداد 60 پایه گیلاس قطورتر از 20 سانتی‌متر  بعلّت عدم فراوانی مناسب در سایر ارتفاعات در سه طبقه ارتفاعی 400-200، 800-600 و 1400-1200 متر از سطح دریا به‌صورت انتخابی مشخص شدند. در این مطالعه برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی پایه‌های مورد نظر اندازه‌گیری و مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که مشخصه‌های کمی رشد قطر برابر سنیه در طبقات ارتفاعی مختلف دارای اختلاف معنی داری در سطح 5 درصد بود. همچنین مشخص شد که با افزایش ارتفاع از سطح دریا و افزایش شدت نور به ویژه تابش مستقیم اشعه ماوراء بنفش میزان فلاونوئیدهای برگ و غلظت آنتوسیانین‌های موجود در میوه گیلاس وحشی که باعث پیدایش رنگ قرمز می‌شود افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A survey of some growth characteristics of Cerasus avium L. species regarding the cecological role of the height above the sea level in Ramsar managed forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • MM Falah chai 1
  • R Khalatbari 2
  • A Islami 3
چکیده [English]

Cherry (Cerasus avium L.) is one of the valuable native and broadleaf species that are either scattered or exist as a small group in the northern forests of Iran. This research was carried out to investigate the effect of altitude from the sea level on some of the growth characteristics of cherry in different altitudinal layers. For this purpose, after seeing different forests in the series of  1 and 3 located in Nesaroud, Ramsar forests, 60 cherry trees of thicker than 20 cm in diameter were randomly identified due to the lack of suitable abundance in other altitudes of three altitudinal classes (200-400, 600-800, and 1200 -1400 m) above the sea level. In this study, some of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the given stands were measured and analyzed. The obtained results showed that the qualitative characteristic of diameter growth were significantly different at  P≤0.05. It was also indicated that the amount of leaf flavonoids and the density of anthocyanin of Cerasus avium that create red color increased with an increase in the height from the sea level and the light intensity particularly the increase in the direct radiation of ultraviolet ray. The maximum density of flavonoids and anthocyanins are in the altitudes higher than 1200-1400 meter above the sea level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anthocyanins
  • Altitude
  • growth
  • Ramsar forests Cerasus avium L
  • Flavonoids

Baz, A.G. (1984). Some physiological studies on dormancy in Mit-Ghamr peach cultivar. A seasonal changes in native growth materials related to bud dormancy in peach. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 21: 465-479.

Benkeblia, N. and Shiomi, N. (2004). Chilling effect on soluble sugars, respiration rate, total phenolic, peroxidase activity and dormancy of onion bulbs. Sciences Agricultural Piracicaba, Brazil. 61: 281-285.

Ben Mohamad, H., Vadel, A.M., Geuns, J.M.C. and Khemira, H. (2010). Biochemical changes in dormant grapevine shoot tissues in response to chilling: Possible role in dormancy release. Scientia Horticulturae. 124: 440-447.

Bonhomme, M., Rageau, R., Lacointe, A. and Gendraud, M. (2005). Influences of cold deprivation during dormancy on carbohydrate contents of vegetative and floral primordia and nearby structures of peach buds (Prunus persica L. Batch). Scientia Horticulturae. 105: 223-240.

Campoy, J.A, Ruiz, D., Cook, N., Allderman, L. and Egea, J. (2011). High temperature and time to budbreak in low chill apricot. Towards a better understanding of chill and heat requirements fulfillment.Scientia Horticulturae.129: 649-655.

Cansev, A., Gulen, H., Celik, G. and Eris, A. (2012). Alterations in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in response to low tempratures ib olive (Olea Europaea L.). Plant Archives 10(1): 489-494.

Charrier, G., Bonhomme, M., Lacointe, A. and Améglio‌, T. (2011). Are budburst dates, dormancy and cold acclimation in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) under mainly genotypic or environmental control? International Journal of Biometeorology. 55: 763-774.

Dennis, F.G. (2003). Problems in standardizing methods for evaluating the chilling requirements for the breaking of dormancy in buds of woody plants.Horticulture Science 38: 347-350.

Doblinski, P.M.F. and Ferrarese, M.L.L. (2003). Peroxidase and lipid proxidation of soybean roots. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Tecnology.46 (2): 193-198.

Egea, J., Ortega, E., Martynez-Gomez, P. and Dicenta, F. (2003). Chilling and heat requirements of almond cultivars for flowering. Environmental Experimental Botany. 50: 79-85.

Erez, A. (1995). Means to compensate for insufficient chilling to improve bloom and leafing. Acta Horticulturae. 395: 81-95.

Fukoda, T., Ito, H. and Yoshida, T. (2003). Antioxidative polyphenols from Walnuts (Juglans regia L.). Phytochemistry. 63: 795-801.

Gonzalez-Rossia, D., Reig, C., Dovis, V., Gariglio, N. and Agusti, M. (2008). Changes on carbohydrates and nitrogen content in the bark tissues induced by artificial chilling and its relationship with dormancy bud break in Prunus sp. Scientia Horticulturae.118: 275-281.

Handel, E.V. (1968). Direct micro determination of sucrose. Analytical Biochemistry. 22: 280-283.

Hellman, E., Shelby, S. and Lowery, C. (2006). Exogenously applied abscise acid did not consistently delay budburst of deacclimating grapevines. Journal of the American Pomological Society. 60: 178-186.

Ito, A., Sakamoto, D. and Moriguchi, T. (2012). Carbohydrate metabolism and its possible roles in endodormancy transition in Japanese pear. Scientia Horticulturae. 144: 187-194.

Kara, M. and Mishra, D. (1976). Catalase, Peroxidase and polyphenolxidase activities during rice leaf senescence. Plant Phsiology. 57: 315-319.

Liu, X. and Huang, B. (2000). Heat stress injury in relation to membrane lipid peroxidation in greeping bentgrass. Crop Science. 40:503-510.

Mann, S.S. and Singh, B. (1990). Some aspects on development physiology of patharankh pear. Acta Horticulturae 279: 155-158.

Maurel, K., Leite, G.B., Bonhomme, M., Guilliot, A., Rageau, R., Petel, G. and Sakr, S. (2004). Trophic control of bud break in peach (Prunus persica) trees: a possible role of hexoses. Tree Physiology. 24: 579-588.

McCready, R.M., Guggolz, J., Silviera, V. and Owens, H.S. (1950). Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Analytical Chemistry 22: 1156-1158.

Noriega, X., Burgos, B. and Pérez, F.J. (2007). Short day-photoperiod triggers and low temperatures increase expression of peroxidase RNA transcripts and basic peroxidase isoenzyme activity in grapevine buds. Phytochemistry 68: 1376-1383.

Pennycooke, J.C., Cox, S. and Stushnoff, C. (2005). Relationship of cold acclimation, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity with chilling tolerance in petunia (Petunia x hybrida). Environmental Experimental Botany. 53: 225-232.

Posmyk, M.M, Corbineau, F., Vinel, D., Bailly, C. and Come, D. (2001). Osmoconditioning reduces physiological and biochemical damage induced by chilling in soybean seeds. Physiologia Plantarum 111: 473-482.

Prado, D.E., Gonzalea, J.A., Boero, C. and Sampietro, A.R. (1998). A simple and sensitive method for determining reducing sugars in plant tissues. Application to quantify the sugar content in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings. Phytochemistry Analysis. 9: 58-63.

Price, M.D. and Buttler, L.G. (1971). Rapid visual estimation and spectrophotometric determination of tannin content of sorghum grain. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry. 251: 1268-1273.

Prassinos, C., Rigas, S., Kizis, D., Vlahou, A. and Hatzopoulos, P. (2011). Subtle proteome differences identified between post-dormant vegetative and floral peach buds. Journal of Proteomics. 74: 607-619.

Rady, M.M. and Seif El-Yazal, M.A. (2013). Response of “Anna” apple dormant buds and carbohydrate metabolism during  floral  bud  break  to  onion  extract. Scientia Horticulturae. 155: 78-84.

Resende, M.L.V., Nojosa, G.B.A., Cavalcant, L.S., Aguilar, M.A.G., Silva, L.H.C.P., Perez, J.O., Andrade, G.C.G., Carvalho, G.A. and Castro, R.M.(2002). Induction of resistance in cocoa against Crinipellis perniciosa and Verticillium dahliae by acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM). Plant Pathology. 51: 621- 628.


Roitsch, T. and Gonzalez, M.C. (2004). Function and regulation of plant invertases: sweet sensations. Trends Plant Scientia. 19: 606–613.

Scalabrelli, G., Viti, R. and Cinelli, F. (1991). Changes in catalase activity and dormancy of apricot buds in response to chilling. Acta Horticulture. 293: 267-274. 

Sergeeva, L.I., Claassens, M.M.J., Jamar, D.C.L., Van Der Plas, L.H.W. and Vreugdenhil,D. (2012). Starch related enzymes during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 59: 556-564.

Sherson, S.M., Alford, H.L., Forbes, S.M., Wallace, G. and Smith, S.M. (2003). Roles of cellwall invertases and monosaccharide transporters in the growth and development of Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany. 54: 525-531.

Szecsk, V., Hrotk, K. and Stefanovits-Banyai, E. (2002). Seasonal variability in phenol content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzyme activity during the dormant season in plum rootstocks.  Proceedings of the 7th Hungarian Congress on Plant Physiology. 46(3): 211-212.

Vergara, R. and Pérez, F.J. (2010). Similarities between natural and chemically induced bud endodormancy release in grapevine Vitis vinifera L. Scientia Horticulture. 125: 648-653.

Wang, S.Y. and Faust, M. (1987). Metabolic activities during dormancy and blooming of deciduous fruit trees. Isr. Journal of Botany. 37: 227-243.

Wang, S.H., Jiao, H.J. and Faust, M. (1991). Changes in the activity of catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase in apple buds during bud break induced by thidiazuron. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 10: 33-39.

Zhang, J., Cui, S., Li, J., Wei, J. and Kirkham, M.B. (1995). Protoplasmic factors, antioxidants responses, and chilling resistance in maize. Plant Physiology. Biochemistry. 33: 567-575.