بررسی تغییرات ترکیبات کربوهیدراتی، فنلی و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی در حذف خواب جوانه‌های جانبی گردوی ایرانی (Juglans regia L.) تحت تیمارهای مختلف سرمادهی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه گلستان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه گلستان

3 استاد گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه گلستان

4 دانشیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده باغبانی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه اثر تیمار ساعات مختلف سرمادهی بر حذف خواب جوانه‌های جانبی گردو، متابولیسم کربوهیدرات‌ها، محتوای ترکیبات فنلی و فعالیت پراکسیداز محلول، دیواره‌ای و پلی‌فنل اکسیداز بود. در این راستا شاخه‌های یک‌ساله درختان 10 ساله‌ روستای زیارت (از توابع شهرستان گرگان)، پس از خزان برگ‌ها به‌صورت تصادفی جمع‌آوری و به قطعات 9 سانتی‌متری حاوی یک جوانه جانبی تقسیم و در دمای 1±4 درجه سانتی‌گراد تحت زمان‌های مختلف (0، 700، 1400 ساعت) قرار گرفتند و سپس در شرایط القایی شکوفایی جوانه (2±25 درجه سانتی‌گراد، فتوپریود 12 ساعت نور 12 ساعت تاریکی و شدت نور سفید فلورسانت µ mol m-2 s-120) واقع شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای 700 و 1400 ساعت سرمادهی، درصد و سرعت حذف خواب را در جوانه‌های جانبی گردوی ایرانی در مقایسه با شاهد به شکل معنی‌داری افزایش و زمان آغاز شکوفایی را کاهش داد. همچنین سرمادهی سبب تجزیه نشاسته و قندهای غیراحیایی و افزایش قندهای احیایی شد که با افزایش درصد حذف خواب جوانه ارتباط مثبت و معنی‌داری داشت. محتوای فنل‌ها، فعالیت آنزیم‌های پراکسیداز محلول و دیواره‌ای تا 700 ساعت و فعالیت آنزیم پلی‌فنل اکسیداز تا 1400 ساعت سرمادهی نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده به نظر می‌رسد در ساعات طولانی تر سرما دهی  افزایش قندهای احیایی انرژی مورد نیاز جهت حذف خواب جوانه را تامین کرده و افزایش فنل کل و فعالیت پراکسیداز محلول و دیواره‌ای منجر به کاهش تنش اکسیداتیو و ایجاد تحمل سرما شد. به علاوه، افزایش فعالیت پلی فنل اکسیداز، نیز حذف فنل‌های بازدارنده و ساخت فنل‌های آنتی‌اکسیداتیو را در پی داشت که در نهایت این فرایندها به موازات هم منجر به حذف خواب در ساعات بالای سرما دهی جوانه‌های گردوی ایرانی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evaluation of carbohydrate, phenol compounds changes and anti-oxidant enzymes activity during the release of dormancy in Persian walnut lateral buds by different chilling treatments

نویسنده [English]

  • J Gholizadeh 1
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was assessing the impacts of different chilling periods on the release of dormancy in walnut lateral buds, carbohydrates metabolism, phenol compounds content, and activities of soluble and cell wall peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. In this line, one-year-old shoots were collected randomly from ten-year-old trees of Ziyarat village (Gorgan) in defoliation which were then cut into 9 cm pieces each with a single lateral bud and were subjected to different chilling treatments (0, 700, 1400 hour) at 4±1 °C and then forcing condition (25 ± 2 ◦C, 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod, 20 µmol m2 s1). Results showed that 700 and 1400 chilling hours significantly increased percentage and rate of walnut lateral bud dormancy release and decreased time of initiation bud break in comparison with control. Chilling caused starch and non-reducing sugar degradation and resulted in the increase of reducing sugars.  This had a positive significant relationship with the percentage of bud dormancy release. Phenols content, soluble and cell wall peroxidase activities increased up to  700 hour chilling while polyphenol oxidase activity increased up to 1400 hour as compared with control. It seems that the buildup of reducing sugars provides the required energy for dormancy release, and the increase of phenols and soluble and cell wall peroxidase activities result in decrease of oxidative stress and development of cold tolerance in buds. Moreover, rising polyphenol oxidase activity caused removing phenolic inhibitors and/or synthesis of antioxidant phenols.  These processes in parallel promoted dormancy release of Persian walnut lateral buds.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling hours
  • Release of dormancy
  • forcing condition
  • enzyme activity
  • carbohydrate metabolism

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