بررسی اثرات آلودگی هوا بر برخی از شاخصهای فیزیولوژیکی گیاه Pyracantha crenulata واریته kansuensis در دو منطقه پاک و آلوده تهران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آلودگی هوا بر موجودات زنده اثرات متنوعی می‌گذارد. گیاهان به‌دلیل اینکه براساس تغییرات شرایط محیطی امکان جابجایی ندارند، ناگزیرند جهت سازش با شرایط سخت، یکسری تغییرات فیزیولوژیکی و مورفولوژیکی را متحمل شوند. بر این اساس تحقیق حاضر به‌منظور مطالعه تأثیر آلودگی هوا بر برخی شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی نظیر مقدار رنگیزه‌های کلروفیلی، ترکیبات کاروتنوئیدی آنتوسیانین، میزان پروتئین و نیز فعالیت دو آنزیم آنتی‌اکسیدانی گیاه P.kansuensis انجام گردید. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد میزان رنگیزه‌های کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کاروتنوئیدها و نیز میزان پروتئین در منطقه پاک نسبت به‌منطقه آلوده به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. ولی میزان آنتوسیانین در منطقه پاک نسبت به منطقه آلوده تغییر چندانی نداشت. همچنین در بررسی فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز مشخص شد در منطقه آلوده فعالیت این آنزیم نسبت به منطقه پاک افزایش معنی‌داری داشت این نتایج نشان می‌دهد آلودگی هوای تهران می‌تواند بر بازده فتوسنتز گیاهان و تصفیه هوا که علاوه بر زیبایی فضای شهری یکی از اهداف گسترش فضاهای سبز در شهرهای بزرگ می‌باشد اثرات سوء داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on some physiological parameters of Pyracantha crenulata var. kansuensis in clean and contaminated areas of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • T Zafarim 1
  • Maryam Bikhof Torbati 2
  • Farhang Moraghebi 2
  • Roya Razavizadeh 1
چکیده [English]

Air pollution has different effects on living organisms. Since plants facing different environmental conditions cannot move, they are forced to cope with difficult conditions and withstand a series of physiological and morphological changes. This study was done to investigate the effects of air pollution on some physiological indices of P. kansuensis plant. These indicators included chlorophyll pigments, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and protein content. The results showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and proteins in the contaminated area as compared with the clean area increased significantly. But anthocyanin content in the clean area did not change significantly compared to the contaminated area. Also, analysis of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the polluted regions showed a significant increase in comparison with the clean regions. Therefore, air pollution in Tehran can have adverse effects on photosynthetic efficiency of plants and air purification. functions of the plants which are one of the goals of the green spaces in major cities in addition to the beauty of urban space.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • aAnthocyanin
  • Protein
  • Pyracantha
  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymology. 105: 121–126.

Amini, Z .and Haddad, R. (2013). Role of photosynthetic Pigments and antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Researches. 26 (3): 251-265.

Agbaire, P.O. and Esiefarienrhe, E. (2009). Air pollution tolerance indices (apti) of some plants around Otorogun gasplant in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13(1): 11-14.

Ashraf, M. and Harris, P.A.C. (2004). Potential biochemical indicators of salinity toleranc in plants. Plant Science. 166: 3- 16.

Bradford, M.M. (1976). A rapid sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of proteindye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.

Giannopolitis, C.N. and Ries, S.K. (1977). Superoxide dismutase I. occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology. 59: 309-314.

Gupta, M.C. (1987). Effects of coal- smoke pollutant from different sources on the growth chlorophyll, stem anatomy and cuticular traits of Euphorbia hirta L. Environment Pollution. 47: 221-229.

Nezami, A. Khazaeia, H.R. Boroumand Rezazadeh, Z. and Hosseini, A. (2008). Effects of drought stress and defoliation on sunflower (Helianthus annulus) in controlled conditions. Desert. 12:99-104

Hui Yun, M. (2007). Effect of ozone on CO2 assimilation and PSII function in plants with Contrasting pollutant Sensitivities. Ph.D Thesis, University of Virginia.

Joshi, PC. Swami, A.(2009). Air pollution induced changes in the photosynthetic pigments of selected plant species. Journal of Environmental Biology. 30(2):295-8.

Khavari-Nejad, R.A., Najafi, F. and Aslani, F. (2015) The effect of different concentrations of potassium dichromate on growth and some antioxidants contents and growth in Zea mays L. Journal of Plant Researches (Iranian Journal of  Biology).  28(2): 285-296.

Konczak, I. and Zhang, W. (2004).Anthocyanins– more than nature’s colours. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 5: 239–240.

Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymology. 148: 350-382.

Lopus,M. Oroudjev, E.  Leslie Wilson, E. Wilhelm, S. Widdison, W., Chari, R. and Ann Jordan, M. (2010). Maytansine and cellular metabolites of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates strongly suppress microtubule dynamics by binding to microtubules. Molecular Cancer Theraputics. 9(10): 2689–2699.

Maddah, S.M., Moraghebi, F., Kashani, Q., Farhangiyan, S. and Afdideh, F. (2015). Physical, physiological responses and resistance of acacia tree (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) under the influence of air pollution in Tehran, Environmental Plant Physiology Journal. 38: 56-48.

Mansur, G. (1999). Air pollution translations from Perkins, Tehran University Press P: 8-6.

Neill, S.O., Gould, K.S., Kilmartin, P.A., Mitchell, K.A. and Markham, K.R. (2002). Antioxidant activities of red versus green leaves in Elatostema reugosum. Plant Cell and Environment, 25: 539-547.

Oka, E., Yuko, T., Tkeshi, O. and  Noriaki, K. (2003). A physiological and morphological study on the injury caused by exposure to the air pollutant, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), Based on the quantitative assessment of the injury. The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Verlag Tokyo.

Olumi, H., Rezanejad, F. and Keramat, B. (2016) Comparative study of biochemical parameters of Pinus nigra and P. elderica cultivated in the area around Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and Kantuyeh. Environmental Plant Physiology Journal. 10(40): 1-12.

Prasad, M. and Strzalka,A. (1999). Impact of heavy metals on photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany. 41:314-320.

Qureshi, M.I., Abdin, M.Z., Qadir, S. and Iqbal, M. (2007) Lead induced oxidative stress and metabolic alterations in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Biology Plant. 51:121-128.

Sairam, R.K., Deshmukh, P.S. and Saxena, D.C. (1998). Role of antioxidant systems in wheat genotype tolerance to water stress. Biologia Plantarum. 41: 387-394.

Shinde, B.P. and Thakur, J. (2015). Influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll, proteins, proline and total carbohydrates content of the pea plant under water stress condition. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Apply Sciences. 4(1): 809-821.

Thomas, M.D. (1985). Air pollution with relation to agronomic crops: I. general status if research on the effects of air pollution on plants. Agronomy Journal, 50: 545-550

Ucar Turker, A., Birinci Yildirim, A. and Pehlivan Karakas, F. (2012). Antibacterial and antitumor activities of some wild fruits grown in  Turkey. Biotechnology and Biotechnology. 26 (1): 2765-2772.

Wagner G.J. (1977). Intracelular localization of vacuolar and cytosol components of protoplasts after vacuole isolation. Plant Physiology. 59: S-104.